Flashcards in Neck Deck (43):
What is the vertebral formula for the horse
C7 T18 L6 S5 (fused) Cd+\-15
What is wobblers syndrome and what causes it?
It is a malarticulation between vertebral bodies leading to slipping of vertebral columns and compression of the spinal chord. Typically seen as ataxia in the thoracic limb
Name the parts of the nuchal ligament
Funiculus nuchae and Lamina nuchae. These structures are paired left and right. The nuchal ligament attaches to the head of the horse
Name the three bursa of the neck and locations associated with them
Cranial nuchal bursae at the level of the arch of the atlas
Caudal nuchal bursae on the spine of the axis this is variable
Supraspinous bursa ~T2/T3 its at this point that the nuchal ligament name changes to the supraspinous ligament.
Caused by Brucella abortus can infect either cranial or causal nuchal bursae typically superlative and can enter nervous system. Based on location
Infection of the supra spinous bursa that can create a draining tract at the interscapular region T2-T8. Brucella abortus is also responsible for this
Muscles of the ventral surface of the neck. Function
Flexor of the neck, down and to the ground when contracted bilaterally if contracted unilaterally will move neck side to side
What two muscles in the horse are equivalent to the canine platysma?
Cutaneus colli and cutaneus faciei
Lateral muscles of the neck function to?
Extend the neck
Second deep layer of the neck consists of 3 muscles
Multifidus cervicis- runs along top of spine
Intertransversarii cervicis- span transverse processes
Spinalis system- long column of muscle
Obliquus capitis caudalis
Covers wing of the atlas passes between c1 and c2
Obliquus capitus cranialis
Passed from head and inserts on c1
Rectus capitis muscles
Deep to obliquus capitis cranialis
Cervical spinal nerves how many pairs?
C2 spinal nerve can be found at what anatomical structure?
At the level of the wing of the atlas
C4 spinal nerve can be found at?
Middle of the neck
The accessory nerve is located where?
It is embedded in the fascia of the omotransversarius
C6 spinal nerve can be found at what anatomical structure?
Point of the shoulder
What is the function and innervation of the dorsal branch of the accessory nerve?
Motor innervation to the brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, and trapezius
What is the location and innervation of the ventral branch of the accessory nerve?
Under the wing of the atlas innervates the sternocephalicus
What are the contributing nerves to the transverse nerve of the neck, and what does it do?
It is the sensory innervation to the space between the mandibles made up of C2 & C3
What nerves make up the phrenic nerve
Ventral branches of C5 C6 C7
What makes up the brachial plexus and where is it located?
C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 can be seen emerging through the scalenus muscle
This nerve runs with the jugular vein and innervates the cutaneus colli muscle
Cervical branch of the facial nerve
What supplies blood to the neck (2)?
Deep cervical artery- located on Lamina nuchae
Vertebral artery- passes through transverse vertebral foramina
What are the cervical lymphocenters?
Superficial cervical, deep cervical (cranial, middle, caudal)
Deep must be located on the trachea
Describe the borders of the equine jugular groove
What are the borders of the median pectoral groove?
Left and right descending pectoral muscles
What artery and vein run in the lateral pectoral groove?
The cephalic vein and the deltoid branch of the superficial cervical artery
The gutteral pouch can be approached from this anatomical structure. Name its borders
Viborgs triangle is created dorsally by tendon of the sternocephalicus ventrally by the linguofacial vein and cranially by the Ramus of the mandible
Name the two muscles that create the lateral pectoral groove
Cleidobrachialis and descending pectoral
What structures do you expect to find in the carotid sheath?
Common carotid artery
+\-internal jugular vein
What are the vertebral columns the trachea spans?
What is the isthmus?
It's a band of tissue that crosses over from left to right on the thyroid gland. It's variable in the horse. It's clinically relevant in the formation of a goiter
The thyroid is located at what anatomical structure?
It's located at the larynx at the first tracheal ring
What is the path of the esophagus through the neck?
Dorsal left dorsal
What are the vertebral formulas for the bovine, caprine, and ovine?
b: C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd 18-20
C: C7 T13 L7 S5 Cd 12-16
O: C7 T12-14 L6-7 Cd 16-24
What is the difference in the nuchal ligament in the ruminant from the horse?
The Lamina nuchae is fused caudally with two cranial continuations
What are the contents of the carotid sheath in the ruminant?
Common carotid artery, vagosympatetic trunk, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and internal jugular vein
Name the borders of the jugular groove in the ruminant. What are differences that the ovine has?
B/c: dorsal cleidomastoideus ventral: stenomandibularis deep: sternomastoideus
Ovine: dorsal cleidomastoideus ventral: sternomastoideus deep: sternomastoideus
Where is the crest, and what is it made of?
It is the root of the mane, and is a deposition of fatty tissue under the skin
Which muscles show varying degrees of fusion in the neck?
Omotransversarius and Brachiocephalicus
Sternothyroideus and Sternohyoideus