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anatomy-horse And Ruminant > Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neck Deck (43):
0

What is the vertebral formula for the horse

C7 T18 L6 S5 (fused) Cd+\-15

1

What is wobblers syndrome and what causes it?

It is a malarticulation between vertebral bodies leading to slipping of vertebral columns and compression of the spinal chord. Typically seen as ataxia in the thoracic limb

2

Name the parts of the nuchal ligament

Funiculus nuchae and Lamina nuchae. These structures are paired left and right. The nuchal ligament attaches to the head of the horse

3

Name the three bursa of the neck and locations associated with them

Cranial nuchal bursae at the level of the arch of the atlas
Caudal nuchal bursae on the spine of the axis this is variable
Supraspinous bursa ~T2/T3 its at this point that the nuchal ligament name changes to the supraspinous ligament.

4

Poll Evil

Caused by Brucella abortus can infect either cranial or causal nuchal bursae typically superlative and can enter nervous system. Based on location

5

Fistulous withers

Infection of the supra spinous bursa that can create a draining tract at the interscapular region T2-T8. Brucella abortus is also responsible for this

6

Muscles of the ventral surface of the neck. Function

Flexor of the neck, down and to the ground when contracted bilaterally if contracted unilaterally will move neck side to side

7

What two muscles in the horse are equivalent to the canine platysma?

Cutaneus colli and cutaneus faciei

8

Lateral muscles of the neck function to?

Extend the neck

9

Second deep layer of the neck consists of 3 muscles

Multifidus cervicis- runs along top of spine
Intertransversarii cervicis- span transverse processes
Spinalis system- long column of muscle

10

Obliquus capitis caudalis

Covers wing of the atlas passes between c1 and c2

11

Obliquus capitus cranialis

Passed from head and inserts on c1

12

Rectus capitis muscles

Deep to obliquus capitis cranialis

13

Cervical spinal nerves how many pairs?

8

15

C2 spinal nerve can be found at what anatomical structure?

At the level of the wing of the atlas

16

C4 spinal nerve can be found at?

Middle of the neck

16

The accessory nerve is located where?

It is embedded in the fascia of the omotransversarius

17

C6 spinal nerve can be found at what anatomical structure?

Point of the shoulder

18

What is the function and innervation of the dorsal branch of the accessory nerve?

Motor innervation to the brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius, and trapezius

19

What is the location and innervation of the ventral branch of the accessory nerve?

Under the wing of the atlas innervates the sternocephalicus

20

What are the contributing nerves to the transverse nerve of the neck, and what does it do?

It is the sensory innervation to the space between the mandibles made up of C2 & C3

21

What nerves make up the phrenic nerve

Ventral branches of C5 C6 C7

22

What makes up the brachial plexus and where is it located?

C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 can be seen emerging through the scalenus muscle

23

This nerve runs with the jugular vein and innervates the cutaneus colli muscle

Cervical branch of the facial nerve

24

What supplies blood to the neck (2)?

Deep cervical artery- located on Lamina nuchae
Vertebral artery- passes through transverse vertebral foramina

25

What are the cervical lymphocenters?

Superficial cervical, deep cervical (cranial, middle, caudal)

Deep must be located on the trachea

26

Describe the borders of the equine jugular groove

Dorsal-cleidomastoideus
Ventral-sternocephalicus
Deep-omohyoideus

27

What are the borders of the median pectoral groove?

Left and right descending pectoral muscles

28

What artery and vein run in the lateral pectoral groove?

The cephalic vein and the deltoid branch of the superficial cervical artery

29

The gutteral pouch can be approached from this anatomical structure. Name its borders

Viborgs triangle is created dorsally by tendon of the sternocephalicus ventrally by the linguofacial vein and cranially by the Ramus of the mandible

30

Name the two muscles that create the lateral pectoral groove

Cleidobrachialis and descending pectoral

31

What structures do you expect to find in the carotid sheath?

Common carotid artery
Vagosympathetic trunk
Recurrent laryngeal
+\-internal jugular vein

32

What are the vertebral columns the trachea spans?

C1-T5/6

33

What is the isthmus?

It's a band of tissue that crosses over from left to right on the thyroid gland. It's variable in the horse. It's clinically relevant in the formation of a goiter

34

The thyroid is located at what anatomical structure?

It's located at the larynx at the first tracheal ring

35

What is the path of the esophagus through the neck?

Dorsal left dorsal

36

What are the vertebral formulas for the bovine, caprine, and ovine?

b: C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd 18-20
C: C7 T13 L7 S5 Cd 12-16
O: C7 T12-14 L6-7 Cd 16-24

37

What is the difference in the nuchal ligament in the ruminant from the horse?

The Lamina nuchae is fused caudally with two cranial continuations

38

What are the contents of the carotid sheath in the ruminant?

Common carotid artery, vagosympatetic trunk, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and internal jugular vein

39

Name the borders of the jugular groove in the ruminant. What are differences that the ovine has?

B/c: dorsal cleidomastoideus ventral: stenomandibularis deep: sternomastoideus

Ovine: dorsal cleidomastoideus ventral: sternomastoideus deep: sternomastoideus

40

Where is the crest, and what is it made of?

It is the root of the mane, and is a deposition of fatty tissue under the skin

41

Which muscles show varying degrees of fusion in the neck?

Omotransversarius and Brachiocephalicus
Sternothyroideus and Sternohyoideus

42

What is found within Viborgs Triangle?

The gutteral puch and the retropharyngeal lymph node