Flashcards in Pelvis And Urogenital Deck (187):
What are the boundaries of the pelvic inlet?
Dorsal - sacrum promontory
Ventral - cranial edge of pubis
Lateral - arcuate line of ilium
What are the diameters of pelvic inlet?
Conjugate - from sacrum to pubis
Transverse - laterally the widest portion
What are the boundaries of the pelvic outlet?
Dorsal - last 3 caudal vertebra
Ventral - ischial arch
Lateral - sacrosciatic ligament
What are the prominences of the sacrum?
Promontory - ventral surface of S1
Median sacral crest -horse - 5 separate spinous processes
-ruminant - all spinous processes fuse
Lateral sacral crest - transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae undergo fusion and both the horse and the ruminant
At what level of the sacral vertebrae does the spinal cord stop?
What are the three peritoneal pouches?
Retrogenital pouch - most dorsal, blind ended pouch between rectum and genital organs
Vesilogenital pouch - between bladder and uterus/genital fold
Pubovesical pouch - between pubis and bladder
What is another name for the poles of the kidney?
Topographic location of right kidney
T16,17,18 and L1
Topographic location of left kidney
T18 and L1,2,3
How can the adrenal gland be differentiated from a lymph node?
Possesses an obvious cortex and medulla which are absent in lymph nodes
What is patent urachus?
Open urachus is extension of vertex of bladder into umbilical cord. Normally closes at birth and regresses. If remains open it is seen as a wet belly button due to dripping urine.
Where are the male and female ureters located?
Male - found in flap of peritoneum called genital fold
Female - found in broad ligament of uterus
What artery is absent in the horse that is present in the dog?
Median sacral artery
What are the landmarks of the medial iliac lymph node? What does it drain?
Origin of the deep circumflex iliac artery
Drains pelvic viscera and in male testis
What condition would cause an enlarged medial iliac lymph node?
Orchitis = inflammation of the testis
What condition is associated with enlargement of the lateral Iliac lymph node?
Gonitis = inflammation of stifle joint
Drains flank and thigh
What are the layers of the scrotum from superficial to deep?
Skin, dartos, fascia, parietal tunic
Fibrous connective tissue that contains smooth muscle to help retract testis
Describe the ligaments of the epididymis
Ligament of the tail of the epididymis - connects tail to parietal vaginal tunic
Proper ligament of the testis - connects tail of epididymis to the testicle itself
Contents of the spermatic cord (anatomic)
Ductus deferens w/ deferential a. and v.
Visceral vaginal tunic
Contents of spermatic cord (clinical)
Same as anatomic +
Parietal vaginal tunic
Parts of visceral vaginal tunic (3)
Part of visceral vaginal tunic that holds testicular v/a/n/lymphatics
Part of visceral vaginal tunic that holds ductus deferens, deferential a. and v.
Testicular v. aka
Crush then cut off all structures at once - spermatic cord including cremaster and parietal tunic
Open parietal tunic then cut - better access to blood supply, avoid hemorrhage
3 parts of the penis
Root (L and R crura), body, glans
Structures with corpus cavernosum
Crura, body, ischiocavernosus
Structures with corpus spongiosum
Bulb of the penis, glans, bulbospongiosus
Parts of the glans (5)
Ischiocavernosus covers what
Which spp has an external preputial fold
The internal preputial fold holds what
Glans of the penis
The openings of the external and internal preputial folds are called what
External - preputial orifice
Internal - preputial ring
What is the "bean"
Condensation of smegma in the urethral sinus
How many excretory ducts does the bulbourethral gland have and where do they open
6-8; open into dorsal urethra at level of ischial arch
How many prostatic ducts does the prostate gland have and where do they empty
15-20; lateral to colliculus seminalis on either side
-L and R wings connected by isthmus
Seminal vesicles aka
Ampulla are the end of what
Which 2 accessory glands fuse and open on common ejaculatory orifice on the colliculus seminalis
Ampulla and seminal vesicles
The genital fold turns into what in the female
Broad ligament of the uterus
The genital fold consists of what 4 structures
L and R ampulla, seminal vesicles (cranial half), ureters, uterus masculinus (vestigial)
The urethralis changes into what other 2 mm. caudally
Urethralis -> bulboglandularis (covers bulbourethral glands) -> bulbospongiosus
L and R, appear fused, wrap around anal opening
Triple origin of blood supply to the penis (dorsal a. of the penis)
Internal pudendal, obturator, external pudendal
Path of internal pudendal a.
Becomes a. of penis -> bifurcates into a. of bulb of penis and dorsal a. of penis
Path of obturator a.
Becomes middle a. of penis -> bifurcates into deep a. of penis and dorsal a. of penis
Path of external pudendal a.
Superficial caudal epigastric branches off -> becomes cranial a. of penis -> bifurcates into dorsal a. of penis x2
Origin of dorsal a. of the penis
Anastomotic from a. of penis, middle a. of penis, cranial a. of penis
Venous return of penis
Large venous plexus immediately dorsal to penis
Sympathetic innervation to penis
Parasympathetic innervation to penis
Dorsal n. is continuation of what nerve
Genitofemoral n. comes from where and innervates what
L3 (can be contribution from L2, L4); sensory to scrotum and medial thigh
Testicular n. comes from what
Caudal mesenteric ganglion
Penis and scrotum drain to what ln.
Superficial inguinal ln.
Testes and epididymis drain to what ln.
Medial iliac ln.
Thigh (including stifle) drains to what ln.
Subiliac ln. -> drain to lateral iliac ln.
Inflammation of the penis
Inflammation of the testes
Inflammation of the epididymis
Inflammation of the stifle
Broad ligament of the uterus and its 3 parts
Periosteal flap, separates reproductive tract; mesometrium, mesovarium, mesosalpinx
What cord-like ligament can be found in the mesometrium and what is its homologue in the male
Round ligament of the uterus; ligament of the tail of the epididymis
Mesosalpinx attaches where and makes up what
Uterine tube; wall of the ovarian bursa
Location of ovary
Halfway b/w last rib and tuber coxae
The ovulation fossa is on which surface of the ovary (equine only)
Concave surface - only place eggs are released
Convex surface of ovary, space where ovarian vessels enter/leave
Ovarian ligaments in equine
Proper ligament of the ovary (exit to uterus)
*NO suspensory ligament in equine
Vestigial structures of ovary
Mesonephric tubules and ducts (from developing kidney), grape-like cysts in mesovarium - epoophoron, paroophoron
Main blood supply to ovary
Ovarian a. - from aorta, comes through mesovarium
Associated blood supply to uterus from ovarian a.
Uterine branch of ovarian
Uterine tube structures
Infundibulum - funnel
Fimbriae - flaps, beginning of tube
Entrance to uterine tube, close to ovary
Exit of uterine tube, close to uterus
What characterizes the cervix
A series of folds, mucus cells
Orifices in cervical canal
Internal uterine orifice (entrance) - uterus -> canal
External uterine orifice (exit) - into vagina
Vaginal portion of cervix
Protrusion into cranial vagina
Blood supply to uterus (3)
Primary - uterine (normally from external iliac but sometimes directly from aorta)
Secondary - uterine branch of ovarian, uterine branch of vaginal
Recess in cranial vagina where cervix protrudes
Hymen = transverse fold
Division b/w vagina cranially and vestibule caudally
Constrictor vestibuli m.
External lateral surface **check this
Rectal cavernous tissue buried in wall of vestibule
Minor - openings in floor
Major - openings in dorsolateral wall, variable **same as Bartholin's (bovine)
External urethral orifice
Cranial part of vestibule ~12 cm. from opening **important for placing urinary catheter
Vulvar cleft = Rima pudenda
L and R labia
Dorsal and ventral, where L and R come together
3 parts of clitoris (in clitoral fossa)
Crura - buried in tissue
Body - cavernous erectile tissue
Glans - ventral commissure - protrudes in fossa
-preputium clitoridis - equivalent of prepuce
Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
Agent is Taylorella equigenitalis, hides out in L and R lateral sinuses and median sinus, *reportable
Rapid protrusion of clitoris in/out of ventral commissure during estrus
Constrictor vulvae m.
Superficial to constrictor vestibulae
Preputial orifice (ruminant)
Small, indicated by tuft of coarse, long hair on ventral abdominal wall
Preputial cavity (ruminant)
Cranial portion usually empty, penis located caudally
Membrane/muscle of prepuce (ruminant)
Membrane thrown into folds that efface when penis becomes erect, cutaneous abdominal muscle modified to form preputial mm.
Cranial preputial m. = preputial protractor
Pulls sheath cranially, covers penis
Caudal preputial m. = preputial retractor
Pulls sheath caudally, exposes penis
Position of testes in ruminant
Vertical (vs equine - horizontal)
Cylindrical, small diameter, covered by thick tunica albuginea; root, body, and glans like equine
Characteristic, on body of penis just caudal to scrotum
Corpus cavernosum penis (ruminant)
Characterized as being primarily filled by connective tissue with relatively few cavernous sinuses
Meaning of fibroelastic penis (ruminant)
Instead of engorging with blood (musculocavernous penis - equine), becomes erect by straightening of the sigmoid flexure
Where do urinary calculi typically lodge (ruminant)
In penile urethra at distal portion of sigmoid flexure
Urethral process (ruminant)
Small at tip and big at base, can cut if constricted
Ruminant vesicular glands
Large and lobulated, located next to ampullae and open on colliculus seminalis w/ ampullae (same as equine)
Bovine prostate gland
Body - on surface, small, connected by isthmus
Disseminate part - surrounds urethra, covered by urethralis m. (not grossly visible)
-numerous secretory ducts open directly into urethra
What part of the prostate gland is present in small ruminants
Disseminate part (only)
Bovine bulbourethral glands
Paired, located at level of ischial arch, covered by bulbospongiosus, usually not palpable **NO bulboglandularis
Small ruminant bulbourethral glands
Much larger, easily observed grossly
Where do the ruminant bulbourethral glands open
Into a urethral diverticulum located in the dorsal wall of the urethra **can prevent urinary catheter from entering pelvic portion of urethra if makes it through sigmoid flexure
When does the internal iliac a. become the caudal gluteal (ruminant)
At the level of the lesser sciatic foramen
What is the origin of the prostatic a. in ruminants
Comes off internal iliac *diff. from equine(internal pudendal)
How do the ovaries move during fetal development (ruminant)
Caudally to the caudal part of the abdomen; weight of gravid uterus will pull ovary forward
Location of ovary in ruminant
Associated w/ ventral part of shaft of ilium at level of pelvic inlet
Uterine horns (ruminant)
Follow descent of ovaries, drawn caudally to produce characteristically coiled appearance
Where can ova be released from the ruminant ovary
Anywhere **no ovulation fossa (equine)
Develops during pregnancy and appears as a prominent bulge on the surface of the ovary
Formed by fingerlike projections, which sweep egg into abdominal ostium, at ovarian end of tube
Ruminant uterus structure
Body actually very short, disguised by common serosal and muscular coat enclosing uterine horns
Dorsal and ventral, formed by superficial tissue b/w uterine horns, can be grasped during rectal palpation to help stabilize uterus
Elevations on mucosal surface of uterus, serve as attachments for fetal membranes, enlarge with advancing stages of pregnancy (but present normally)
What keeps the internal and external uterine orifices tightly closed to protect the fetus from infection
Circular and longitudinal mucosal folds in the cervical canal and the secretion of a mucus plug
Its size and firmness can often serve as a palpation landmark although its position is variable
Relatively featureless, can stretch in length during pregnancy as uterus falls forward into abdominal cavity, mucosa in cranial part characterized by circular ridges with low longitudinal folds passing caudally
Gartner's ducts (ruminant)
Variable, may be present near the junction b/w vagina and vestibule, vestiges of mesonephric ducts, may form cysts
Major vestibular glands = Bartholin's glands
Ruminant only, may be covered by mucosal folds, openings are lateral and caudal to external urethral orifice
Suburethral diverticulum (ruminant)
Conspicuous feature in floor of vestibule (large enough for fingertip in bovine) **avoid when inserting urinary catheter
Location of clitoris in ruminant (glans)
Floor of vestibule just inside labia
Which a. supplies the ovary and uterine tube in ruminants
Ovarian a. - coiled and intermingled w/ ovarian v. as they pass through the broad ligament (uterine branch supplies tip of uterine horn)
Uterine a. (ruminant)
Originates from umbilical a. or w/ umbilical as common stalk from internal iliac depending on spp (*external iliac in equine), largest artery supplying reproductive tract, cranial and caudal branches
Uterine a. is somewhat mobile within broad ligament - can be felt to vibrate during rectal palpation around third month of pregnancy *pathognomonic for pregnancy
What part of the uterine wall has diminished vascular supply (ruminant)
Vaginal a. is a branch of what artery (ruminant)
Where fetal membranes of the placenta attach in the uterus, each formed by maternal caruncle and fetal cotyledon, develop rapidly during early weeks of pregnancy and fill uterine horns (ruminant)
Fetal membranes (normally expelled shortly after birth) fail to separate from caruncles
When does internal iliac a. change into internal pudendal (female ruminant)
After caudal gluteal comes off
Main blood flow for female ruminant genitalia
Internal iliac (caudal gluteal) -> internal pudendal (ventral perineal) -> a. of the clitoris
Female /male genital vessel naming equivalents
Vaginal a. = prostatic
Uterine a. = deferential
Ovarian a. = testicular
a. of the clitoris = a. of the penis
2 openings/teat = 4 milk-producing units (cranial and caudal glands open on same spigot)
Canals through mammary parenchyma
Lactiferous sinus (equine, 2 parts)
Gland sinus - dorsal cavity
Teat or papillary sinus - continuation into teat
(Storage units for milk)
Drains papillary sinus
Opening out of teat
Waxing (mammary gland)
Sebaceous secretions, epithelial debris, colostrum - coats outside of teat prior to parturition
Mammary groove (ruminant)
Along midline, demarcates L and R halves
Each half has a cranial and caudal quarter indicated by a teat (functionally distinct but no anatomical division), supernumerary teats not uncommon
Small ruminant teats
2 teats w/ L and R half to udder (one teat/side, each teat drains one milk-producing unit)
Lactiferous sinus (ruminant, 2 parts)
Gland sinus - ventral portion
Teat sinus - cavity within teat
Refers to mucosal folds at proximal aspect of papillary duct, may be inconspicuous but if enlarged can block easy milk flow
Supports weight of mammary gland, attachments originate from symphyseal tendon of pelvis and give rise to medial and lateral laminae (2 medial laminae are elastic and apposed next to each other along midline) **can rupture in high-producing cows
Surgical treatment of mastitis
Mastectomy - clean separation of L and R halves of udder possible
Lateral lamina (suspensory apparatus)
Composed of dense connective tissue, separates into 2 sheets - superficial sheet that blends w/ femoral fascia and deep sheet that covers the lateral aspect of the gland
External pudendal a. (udder)
Main blood supply to udder, becomes greatly enlarged in lactating cow, characterized by a sigmoid flexure as it passes toward mammary gland, divides into cranial and caudal mammary aa. to supply milk-producing parenchyma
Which vessel supplies the hindquarter of the mammary gland and may anastomose w/ the caudal mammary a.
Mammary branch of the ventral perineal a.
Venous return from udder
Venous ring surrounds base, can travel via 3 routes: 1) milk v. 2) external pudendal v. 3) perineal v.
*ventral labial v. (Dyce) - connects caudal mammary and ventral perineal
Milk v. = subcutaneous abdominal v.
Passes cranially along abdominal wall, becomes prominently enlarged during active lactation, formed by fusion of cranial and caudal superficial epigastric vv., enters foramen in rectus abdominis m. called "milk well" *palpable
Innervation to mammary gland tissue and middle cutaneous part of udder
Innervation to skin over cranial part of udder
Ventral branches of L1 and L2
Innervation to caudal cutaneous part of udder
Mammary branch of pudendal n.
Lymphatic drainage for udder
# teats for equine/bovine/small ruminant
Equine - 2 teats, 4 milk-producing units
Bovine - 4 teats, 4 milk-producing units
Small ruminant - 2 teats, 2 milk-producing units
Refers to 3D structures that close off pelvic cavity
Superficial boundaries of perineum
Dorsal - root of the tail
Ventral - scrotum/mammary gland (equine) or udder (ruminant)
Lateral - semimembranosus
Deep boundaries of perineum
Dorsal - end of sacrum and 1st caudal vertebrae
Ventral - ischial arch
Lateral - sacrosciatic ligament
Triangular, causes tent when lift tail, originates at ischiatic spine and inserts at base of tail
Covers rectum, 3 parts/bundles
Retractor of clitoris
Homologue of retractor penis
3D structure formed by muscle and connective tissue b/w termination of GI and repro tracts
Components of perineal body (5)
Smooth m. of internal anal sphincter
Skeletal m. of external anal sphincter
Connective tissue of rectovaginal septum
Muscle of vestibular and vaginal wall
Muscle of rectum and anal canal
Calf can tear perineal structures at time of parturition - linear tears, rectovaginal fistula
Slope of the pelvis
Tuber coxae to ischiatic tuberosity - use to recognize coxofemoral luxation (greater trochanter of femur)
Origin of coccygeus, part of insertion for sacrosciatic ligament
Connective tissue sheath from tuber sacrale (medial-directed tuberosity) to lateral sacral crest (one part) and spinous processes (2nd part)
Lateral sacral crest to ischiatic spine and tuberosity (large sheet in equine)
Greater and lesser sciatic notches
Form greater and lesser sciatic foramina when covered by sacrosciatic ligament
What passes through the greater sciatic foramen
Sciatic n. (gives off cranial gluteal n. after passing through) and cranial gluteal a.
What passes through the lesser sciatic foramen
Tendon of internal obturator *internal pudendal a. visible medial to foramen but does NOT pass through
Sciatic n. branches (3)
Cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, caudal cutaneous femoral
Caudal cutaneous femoral n.
Sensory to caudal thigh, can come off anywhere but will always be after caudal gluteal branches
Pudendal n. becomes what
Dorsal n. of penis/clitoris
Caudal rectal n. innervates (3)
Coccygeus, levator ani, anal sphincters
What makes up the genital fold in male horses?
Lt and rt ampulla, cranial half of seminal vesicles, ureters, uterus mastulinus
What is balanitis?
Enlarged superficial inguinal nodes which drain penis and scrotum
What drains to medial iliac ln?
Testis (orchitis) and epididymis (epididymitis)
What is the lymphatic drainage of the thigh?
Subiliac ln to lateral iliac ln= gonitis
What is the Epoophoron?
Mesonephric tubules and ducts