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anatomy-horse And Ruminant > Pelvis And Urogenital > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvis And Urogenital Deck (187):
0

What are the diameters of pelvic inlet?

Conjugate - from sacrum to pubis
Transverse - laterally the widest portion

1

What are the boundaries of the pelvic inlet?

Dorsal - sacrum promontory
Ventral - cranial edge of pubis
Lateral - arcuate line of ilium

2

What are the boundaries of the pelvic outlet?

Dorsal - last 3 caudal vertebra
Ventral - ischial arch
Lateral - sacrosciatic ligament

3

What are the prominences of the sacrum?

Promontory - ventral surface of S1
Median sacral crest -horse - 5 separate spinous processes
-ruminant - all spinous processes fuse
Lateral sacral crest - transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae undergo fusion and both the horse and the ruminant

4

At what level of the sacral vertebrae does the spinal cord stop?

S2

5

What are the three peritoneal pouches?

Retrogenital pouch - most dorsal, blind ended pouch between rectum and genital organs
Vesilogenital pouch - between bladder and uterus/genital fold
Pubovesical pouch - between pubis and bladder

6

What is another name for the poles of the kidney?

Extremities

7

Topographic location of right kidney

T16,17,18 and L1

8

Topographic location of left kidney

T18 and L1,2,3

9

How can the adrenal gland be differentiated from a lymph node?

Possesses an obvious cortex and medulla which are absent in lymph nodes

10

What is patent urachus?

Open urachus is extension of vertex of bladder into umbilical cord. Normally closes at birth and regresses. If remains open it is seen as a wet belly button due to dripping urine.

11

Where are the male and female ureters located?

Male - found in flap of peritoneum called genital fold
Female - found in broad ligament of uterus

12

What artery is absent in the horse that is present in the dog?

Median sacral artery

13

What are the landmarks of the medial iliac lymph node? What does it drain?

Origin of the deep circumflex iliac artery
Drains pelvic viscera and in male testis
Inflammation--orchitis

14

What condition would cause an enlarged medial iliac lymph node?

Orchitis = inflammation of the testis

15

What condition is associated with enlargement of the lateral Iliac lymph node?

Gonitis = inflammation of stifle joint
Drains flank and thigh

16

What are the layers of the scrotum from superficial to deep?

Skin, dartos, fascia, parietal tunic

17

Tunica albuginea

Fibrous connective tissue that contains smooth muscle to help retract testis

18

Describe the ligaments of the epididymis

Ligament of the tail of the epididymis - connects tail to parietal vaginal tunic
Proper ligament of the testis - connects tail of epididymis to the testicle itself

19

What makes up the genital fold in male horses?

Lt and rt ampulla, cranial half of seminal vesicles, ureters, uterus mastulinus

20

What is balanitis?

Enlarged superficial inguinal nodes which drain penis and scrotum

21

What drains to medial iliac ln?

Testis (orchitis) and epididymis (epididymitis)

22

What is the lymphatic drainage of the thigh?

Subiliac ln to lateral iliac ln= gonitis

23

What is the Epoophoron?

Mesonephric tubules and ducts

24

What is Paroophoron

Cystic structure within mesovarium vestigial structure mesonephros

25

Contents of the spermatic cord (anatomic)

Testicular v/a/n/lymphatics
Ductus deferens w/ deferential a. and v.
Visceral vaginal tunic

26

Contents of spermatic cord (clinical)

Same as anatomic +
Parietal vaginal tunic
Cremaster m.

27

Parts of visceral vaginal tunic (3)

Mesofuniculus
Mesorchium
Mesoductus

28

Part of visceral vaginal tunic that holds testicular v/a/n/lymphatics

Mesorchium

29

Part of visceral vaginal tunic that holds ductus deferens, deferential a. and v.

Mesoductus

30

Testicular v. aka

Pampiniform plexus

31

Closed castration

Crush then cut off all structures at once - spermatic cord including cremaster and parietal tunic

32

Open castration

Open parietal tunic then cut - better access to blood supply, avoid hemorrhage

33

3 parts of the penis

Root (L and R crura), body, glans

34

Structures with corpus cavernosum

Crura, body, ischiocavernosus

35

Structures with corpus spongiosum

Bulb of the penis, glans, bulbospongiosus

36

Parts of the glans (5)

Dorsal process
Corona glandis
Urethral process
Fossa glandis
Urethral sinus

37

Ischiocavernosus covers what

Each crus

38

Which spp has an external preputial fold

Canine

39

The internal preputial fold holds what

Glans of the penis

40

The openings of the external and internal preputial folds are called what

External - preputial orifice
Internal - preputial ring

41

What is the "bean"

Condensation of smegma in the urethral sinus

42

How many excretory ducts does the bulbourethral gland have and where do they open

6-8; open into dorsal urethra at level of ischial arch

43

How many prostatic ducts does the prostate gland have and where do they empty

15-20; lateral to colliculus seminalis on either side
-L and R wings connected by isthmus

44

Seminal vesicles aka

Vesicular glands

45

Ampulla are the end of what

Ductus deferens

46

Which 2 accessory glands fuse and open on common ejaculatory orifice on the colliculus seminalis

Ampulla and seminal vesicles

47

The genital fold turns into what in the female

Broad ligament of the uterus

48

The genital fold consists of what 4 structures

L and R ampulla, seminal vesicles (cranial half), ureters, uterus masculinus (vestigial)

49

The urethralis changes into what other 2 mm. caudally

Urethralis -> bulboglandularis (covers bulbourethral glands) -> bulbospongiosus

50

Retractor penis

L and R, appear fused, wrap around anal opening

51

Triple origin of blood supply to the penis (dorsal a. of the penis)

Internal pudendal, obturator, external pudendal

52

Path of internal pudendal a.

Becomes a. of penis -> bifurcates into a. of bulb of penis and dorsal a. of penis

53

Path of obturator a.

Becomes middle a. of penis -> bifurcates into deep a. of penis and dorsal a. of penis

54

Path of external pudendal a.

Superficial caudal epigastric branches off -> becomes cranial a. of penis -> bifurcates into dorsal a. of penis x2

55

Origin of dorsal a. of the penis

Anastomotic from a. of penis, middle a. of penis, cranial a. of penis

56

Venous return of penis

Large venous plexus immediately dorsal to penis

57

Sympathetic innervation to penis

Hypogastric n.

58

Parasympathetic innervation to penis

Pelvic n.

59

Dorsal n. is continuation of what nerve

Pudendal

60

Genitofemoral n. comes from where and innervates what

L3 (can be contribution from L2, L4); sensory to scrotum and medial thigh

61

Testicular n. comes from what

Caudal mesenteric ganglion

62

Penis and scrotum drain to what ln.

Superficial inguinal ln.

63

Testes and epididymis drain to what ln.

Medial iliac ln.

64

Thigh (including stifle) drains to what ln.

Subiliac ln. -> drain to lateral iliac ln.

65

Inflammation of the penis

Balanitis

66

Inflammation of the testes

Orchitis

67

Inflammation of the epididymis

Epididymitis

68

Inflammation of the stifle

Gonitis

69

Broad ligament of the uterus and its 3 parts

Periosteal flap, separates reproductive tract; mesometrium, mesovarium, mesosalpinx

70

What cord-like ligament can be found in the mesometrium and what is its homologue in the male

Round ligament of the uterus; ligament of the tail of the epididymis

71

Mesosalpinx attaches where and makes up what

Uterine tube; wall of the ovarian bursa

72

Location of ovary

Halfway b/w last rib and tuber coxae

73

The ovulation fossa is on which surface of the ovary (equine only)

Concave surface - only place eggs are released

74

Ovarian hilus

Convex surface of ovary, space where ovarian vessels enter/leave

75

Ovarian ligaments in equine

Proper ligament of the ovary (exit to uterus)
*NO suspensory ligament in equine

76

Vestigial structures of ovary

Mesonephric tubules and ducts (from developing kidney), grape-like cysts in mesovarium - epoophoron, paroophoron

77

Main blood supply to ovary

Ovarian a. - from aorta, comes through mesovarium

78

Associated blood supply to uterus from ovarian a.

Uterine branch of ovarian

79

Uterine tube structures

Infundibulum - funnel
Fimbriae - flaps, beginning of tube

80

Abdominal ostium

Entrance to uterine tube, close to ovary

81

Uterine ostium

Exit of uterine tube, close to uterus

82

What characterizes the cervix

A series of folds, mucus cells

83

Orifices in cervical canal

Internal uterine orifice (entrance) - uterus -> canal
External uterine orifice (exit) - into vagina

84

Vaginal portion of cervix

Protrusion into cranial vagina

85

Blood supply to uterus (3)

Primary - uterine (normally from external iliac but sometimes directly from aorta)
Secondary - uterine branch of ovarian, uterine branch of vaginal

86

Fornix

Recess in cranial vagina where cervix protrudes

87

Hymen = transverse fold

Division b/w vagina cranially and vestibule caudally

88

Constrictor vestibuli m.

External lateral surface **check this

89

Vestibular bulb

Rectal cavernous tissue buried in wall of vestibule

90

Vestibular glands

Minor - openings in floor
Major - openings in dorsolateral wall, variable **same as Bartholin's (bovine)

91

External urethral orifice

Cranial part of vestibule ~12 cm. from opening **important for placing urinary catheter

92

Vulvar cleft = Rima pudenda

L and R labia

93

Commissures

Dorsal and ventral, where L and R come together

94

3 parts of clitoris (in clitoral fossa)

Crura - buried in tissue
Body - cavernous erectile tissue
Glans - ventral commissure - protrudes in fossa
-preputium clitoridis - equivalent of prepuce

95

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

Agent is Taylorella equigenitalis, hides out in L and R lateral sinuses and median sinus, *reportable

96

Winking

Rapid protrusion of clitoris in/out of ventral commissure during estrus

97

Constrictor vulvae m.

Superficial to constrictor vestibulae

98

Preputial orifice (ruminant)

Small, indicated by tuft of coarse, long hair on ventral abdominal wall

99

Preputial cavity (ruminant)

Cranial portion usually empty, penis located caudally

100

Membrane/muscle of prepuce (ruminant)

Membrane thrown into folds that efface when penis becomes erect, cutaneous abdominal muscle modified to form preputial mm.

101

Cranial preputial m. = preputial protractor

Pulls sheath cranially, covers penis

102

Caudal preputial m. = preputial retractor

Pulls sheath caudally, exposes penis

103

Position of testes in ruminant

Vertical (vs equine - horizontal)

104

Ruminant penis

Cylindrical, small diameter, covered by thick tunica albuginea; root, body, and glans like equine

105

Sigmoid flexure

Characteristic, on body of penis just caudal to scrotum

106

Corpus cavernosum penis (ruminant)

Characterized as being primarily filled by connective tissue with relatively few cavernous sinuses

107

Meaning of fibroelastic penis (ruminant)

Instead of engorging with blood (musculocavernous penis - equine), becomes erect by straightening of the sigmoid flexure

108

Where do urinary calculi typically lodge (ruminant)

In penile urethra at distal portion of sigmoid flexure

109

Urethral process (ruminant)

Small at tip and big at base, can cut if constricted

110

Ruminant vesicular glands

Large and lobulated, located next to ampullae and open on colliculus seminalis w/ ampullae (same as equine)

111

Bovine prostate gland

2 portions:
Body - on surface, small, connected by isthmus
Disseminate part - surrounds urethra, covered by urethralis m. (not grossly visible)
-numerous secretory ducts open directly into urethra

112

What part of the prostate gland is present in small ruminants

Disseminate part (only)

113

Bovine bulbourethral glands

Paired, located at level of ischial arch, covered by bulbospongiosus, usually not palpable **NO bulboglandularis

114

Small ruminant bulbourethral glands

Much larger, easily observed grossly

115

Where do the ruminant bulbourethral glands open

Into a urethral diverticulum located in the dorsal wall of the urethra **can prevent urinary catheter from entering pelvic portion of urethra if makes it through sigmoid flexure

116

When does the internal iliac a. become the caudal gluteal (ruminant)

At the level of the lesser sciatic foramen

117

What is the origin of the prostatic a. in ruminants

Comes off internal iliac *diff. from equine(internal pudendal)

118

How do the ovaries move during fetal development (ruminant)

Caudally to the caudal part of the abdomen; weight of gravid uterus will pull ovary forward

119

Location of ovary in ruminant

Associated w/ ventral part of shaft of ilium at level of pelvic inlet

120

Uterine horns (ruminant)

Follow descent of ovaries, drawn caudally to produce characteristically coiled appearance

121

Where can ova be released from the ruminant ovary

Anywhere **no ovulation fossa (equine)

122

Corpus luteum

Develops during pregnancy and appears as a prominent bulge on the surface of the ovary

123

Fimbriae (ruminant)

Formed by fingerlike projections, which sweep egg into abdominal ostium, at ovarian end of tube

124

Ruminant uterus structure

Body actually very short, disguised by common serosal and muscular coat enclosing uterine horns

125

Intercornual ligament

Dorsal and ventral, formed by superficial tissue b/w uterine horns, can be grasped during rectal palpation to help stabilize uterus

126

Caruncles

Elevations on mucosal surface of uterus, serve as attachments for fetal membranes, enlarge with advancing stages of pregnancy (but present normally)

127

What keeps the internal and external uterine orifices tightly closed to protect the fetus from infection

Circular and longitudinal mucosal folds in the cervical canal and the secretion of a mucus plug

128

Ruminant cervix

Its size and firmness can often serve as a palpation landmark although its position is variable

129

Ruminant vagina

Relatively featureless, can stretch in length during pregnancy as uterus falls forward into abdominal cavity, mucosa in cranial part characterized by circular ridges with low longitudinal folds passing caudally

130

Gartner's ducts (ruminant)

Variable, may be present near the junction b/w vagina and vestibule, vestiges of mesonephric ducts, may form cysts

131

Major vestibular glands = Bartholin's glands

Ruminant only, may be covered by mucosal folds, openings are lateral and caudal to external urethral orifice

132

Suburethral diverticulum (ruminant)

Conspicuous feature in floor of vestibule (large enough for fingertip in bovine) **avoid when inserting urinary catheter

133

Location of clitoris in ruminant (glans)

Floor of vestibule just inside labia

134

Which a. supplies the ovary and uterine tube in ruminants

Ovarian a. - coiled and intermingled w/ ovarian v. as they pass through the broad ligament (uterine branch supplies tip of uterine horn)

135

Uterine a. (ruminant)

Originates from umbilical a. or w/ umbilical as common stalk from internal iliac depending on spp (*external iliac in equine), largest artery supplying reproductive tract, cranial and caudal branches

136

Fremitus

Uterine a. is somewhat mobile within broad ligament - can be felt to vibrate during rectal palpation around third month of pregnancy *pathognomonic for pregnancy

137

What part of the uterine wall has diminished vascular supply (ruminant)

Antimesometrial

138

Vaginal a. is a branch of what artery (ruminant)

Internal iliac

139

Placentomes

Where fetal membranes of the placenta attach in the uterus, each formed by maternal caruncle and fetal cotyledon, develop rapidly during early weeks of pregnancy and fill uterine horns (ruminant)

140

Retained placenta

Fetal membranes (normally expelled shortly after birth) fail to separate from caruncles

141

When does internal iliac a. change into internal pudendal (female ruminant)

After caudal gluteal comes off

142

Main blood flow for female ruminant genitalia

Internal iliac (caudal gluteal) -> internal pudendal (ventral perineal) -> a. of the clitoris

143

Female /male genital vessel naming equivalents

Vaginal a. = prostatic
Uterine a. = deferential
Ovarian a. = testicular
a. of the clitoris = a. of the penis

144

Equine teat/papilla

2 openings/teat = 4 milk-producing units (cranial and caudal glands open on same spigot)

145

Lactiferous ducts

Canals through mammary parenchyma

146

Lactiferous sinus (equine, 2 parts)

Gland sinus - dorsal cavity
Teat or papillary sinus - continuation into teat
(Storage units for milk)

147

Teat/papillary duct

Drains papillary sinus

148

Teat/papillary orifice

Opening out of teat

149

Waxing (mammary gland)

Sebaceous secretions, epithelial debris, colostrum - coats outside of teat prior to parturition

150

Mammary groove (ruminant)

Along midline, demarcates L and R halves

151

Bovine teats

Each half has a cranial and caudal quarter indicated by a teat (functionally distinct but no anatomical division), supernumerary teats not uncommon

152

Small ruminant teats

2 teats w/ L and R half to udder (one teat/side, each teat drains one milk-producing unit)

153

Lactiferous sinus (ruminant, 2 parts)

Gland sinus - ventral portion
Teat sinus - cavity within teat

154

Furstenberg's rosette

Refers to mucosal folds at proximal aspect of papillary duct, may be inconspicuous but if enlarged can block easy milk flow

155

Suspensory apparatus

Supports weight of mammary gland, attachments originate from symphyseal tendon of pelvis and give rise to medial and lateral laminae (2 medial laminae are elastic and apposed next to each other along midline) **can rupture in high-producing cows

156

Surgical treatment of mastitis

Mastectomy - clean separation of L and R halves of udder possible

157

Lateral lamina (suspensory apparatus)

Composed of dense connective tissue, separates into 2 sheets - superficial sheet that blends w/ femoral fascia and deep sheet that covers the lateral aspect of the gland

158

External pudendal a. (udder)

Main blood supply to udder, becomes greatly enlarged in lactating cow, characterized by a sigmoid flexure as it passes toward mammary gland, divides into cranial and caudal mammary aa. to supply milk-producing parenchyma

159

Which vessel supplies the hindquarter of the mammary gland and may anastomose w/ the caudal mammary a.

Mammary branch of the ventral perineal a.

160

Venous return from udder

Venous ring surrounds base, can travel via 3 routes: 1) milk v. 2) external pudendal v. 3) perineal v.
*ventral labial v. (Dyce) - connects caudal mammary and ventral perineal

161

Milk v. = subcutaneous abdominal v.

Passes cranially along abdominal wall, becomes prominently enlarged during active lactation, formed by fusion of cranial and caudal superficial epigastric vv., enters foramen in rectus abdominis m. called "milk well" *palpable

162

Innervation to mammary gland tissue and middle cutaneous part of udder

Genitofemoral n.

163

Innervation to skin over cranial part of udder

Ventral branches of L1 and L2

164

Innervation to caudal cutaneous part of udder

Mammary branch of pudendal n.

165

Lymphatic drainage for udder

Supramammary ln.

166

# teats for equine/bovine/small ruminant

Equine - 2 teats, 4 milk-producing units
Bovine - 4 teats, 4 milk-producing units
Small ruminant - 2 teats, 2 milk-producing units

167

Perineum

Refers to 3D structures that close off pelvic cavity

168

Superficial boundaries of perineum

Dorsal - root of the tail
Ventral - scrotum/mammary gland (equine) or udder (ruminant)
Lateral - semimembranosus

169

Deep boundaries of perineum

Dorsal - end of sacrum and 1st caudal vertebrae
Ventral - ischial arch
Lateral - sacrosciatic ligament

170

Coccygeus

Triangular, causes tent when lift tail, originates at ischiatic spine and inserts at base of tail

171

Levator ani

Covers rectum, 3 parts/bundles

172

Retractor of clitoris

Homologue of retractor penis

173

Perineal body

3D structure formed by muscle and connective tissue b/w termination of GI and repro tracts

174

Components of perineal body (5)

Smooth m. of internal anal sphincter
Skeletal m. of external anal sphincter
Connective tissue of rectovaginal septum
Muscle of vestibular and vaginal wall
Muscle of rectum and anal canal

175

Perineal lacerations

Calf can tear perineal structures at time of parturition - linear tears, rectovaginal fistula

176

Slope of the pelvis

Tuber coxae to ischiatic tuberosity - use to recognize coxofemoral luxation (greater trochanter of femur)

177

Ischiatic spine

Origin of coccygeus, part of insertion for sacrosciatic ligament

178

Sacroiliac ligament

Connective tissue sheath from tuber sacrale (medial-directed tuberosity) to lateral sacral crest (one part) and spinous processes (2nd part)

179

Sacrosciatic ligament

Lateral sacral crest to ischiatic spine and tuberosity (large sheet in equine)

180

Greater and lesser sciatic notches

Form greater and lesser sciatic foramina when covered by sacrosciatic ligament

181

What passes through the greater sciatic foramen

Sciatic n. (gives off cranial gluteal n. after passing through) and cranial gluteal a.

182

What passes through the lesser sciatic foramen

Tendon of internal obturator *internal pudendal a. visible medial to foramen but does NOT pass through

183

Sciatic n. branches (3)

Cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, caudal cutaneous femoral

184

Caudal cutaneous femoral n.

Sensory to caudal thigh, can come off anywhere but will always be after caudal gluteal branches

185

Pudendal n. becomes what

Dorsal n. of penis/clitoris

186

Caudal rectal n. innervates (3)

Coccygeus, levator ani, anal sphincters