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Flashcards in Abdomen IV Deck (45):
1

What plexus meets inside the psoas major?

The lumbar plexus

2

Origin of the Psoas Major?

Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae, bodies of vertebra and IVDs

3

Insertion of the Psoas Major?

Lesser trochanter of femur together with the iliacus tendon

4

Innervation of the Psoas Major?

Ventral rami of first 4 lumbar nerves

5

Action of the Psoas Major?

Acting superiorly with the iliacus, flexes hip.

Acting inferiorly, flexes vertebral column and trunk laterally.

Balances trunk in sitting position.

6

Origin of the Psoas Minor?

Vertebral margins of T12 - L1 and IVDs

7

Insertion of the Psoas Minor?

iliopectineal eminence

8

Action of the Psoas Minor?


Flexes pelvis on vertebral column

9

Innervation of the Psoas Minor?

Ventral rami of 1st lumbar nerve

10

Origin of Quadratus Lumborum?


12th rib and tips of lumbar transverse processes



11

Insertion of Quadratus Lumborum?

Iliolumbar ligament and  iliac crest

12

Innervation of Quadratus Lumborum?

Ventral rami of T12 and first 4 lumbar nerves

13

Action of Quadratus Lumborum?

Extends and laterally flexes vertebral column

Fixes 12th rib during inspiration

14

Origin of Iliacus?


Iliac fossa, sacrum, anterior sacro-iliac ligaments




15

Insertion of Iliacus?

Lesser trochanter of femur and psoas major tendon

16

Innervation of Iliacus?

Femoral Nerve

17

Action of Iliacus?

Flexes hip and stabilizes hip joint

Acts with the psoas major

18

What are the openings of the diaphragm?

(I 8 (ate) 10 Eggs At 12 (noon)

Caval hiatus - T8 - transmits the IVC and occasionally the right phrenic nerve

Esophageal hiatus - T10 - transmits the esophagus and anterior and posterior trunks of Vagus

Aortic hiatus - T12 - transmits the Aorta, Thoracic duct, Azygos vein, and occasionally greater splanchnic nerve

19

What are the ligaments of the diaphragm and their functions?

Median arcuate ligament: unites crura a forms aortic hiatus.

Medial arcuate ligament: tendinous arch across the upper part of psoas major.

Lateral arcuate ligament: tendinous arch across the quadratus lumborum

20

What are the crura of the diaphragm?

Right crus: supports esophageal hiatus; L1-L3

Left crus: L1 - L2

21

What are the roots of the lumbar plexus?

L1, L2, L3, L4

22

What are the lumbar plexus roots of the Iliohypogastric nerve ?

L1

23

What are the lumbar plexus roots of the Ilioinguinal nerve?

L1

24

What are the lumbar plexus roots of the Genitofemoral nerve?

L1-L2

25

What are the lumbar plexus roots of the Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve?

L2-L3

26

What are the lumbar plexus roots of the Femoral nerve ?

L2, L3, L4

27

What are the lumbar plexus roots of the Obturator nerve?

L2, L3, L4

28

What are the roots of the subcostal nerves?

T12

29

What nerve pierces the psoas major?

Genitofemoral nerve

30

What nerve is in the groove between the psoas major and iliacus, but lateral to the psoas?

Femoral Nerve (fatty, fanny)

31

What nerve is medial to the psoas?

Obturator nerve (round, white, glistening)

32

Which nerve runs in front of the liacus?

Lateral femoral cutaneous

33

Which nerves are on top of the quadratus lumborum?

Subcostal nerve (T12)
Iliohypogastric nerve (L1)
Ilioinguinal nerve (L1)

34

Which kidney sits higher up and what is it's relationship tot he ribs?

The left kidney (rib 11-12) is higher than the right (rib 12) due to the position of the liver.

35

What are the parts of the kidney?

Cortex - forms the outer part of the kidney

Medulla - 8 to 12 renal pyramids - base is renal papilla

Minor Calyces - form Major Calyces, which empty into the renal pelvis of the ureter.

36

What is the blood supply of the suprarenal glands?

Superior suprarenal artery from the inferior phrenic artery

Middle suprarenal artery from the abdominal aorta

Inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery.

37

What are the 3 sites of constriction in the ureter?

1. Uretero-pelvic junction - where the ureter joins the renal pelvis.

2. Pelvic inlet - where the ureter crosses the common iliac artery

3. Ureterovesicular junction - where the ureter enters the wall of the urinary bladder (This is the narrowest point of the whole ureter)

38

How do you differentiate the ureter from the gonadal arteries?

Ureters - run medially from the renal pelvis

Gonadal arteries - run laterally from the abdominal aorta

39

What are the levels of the important branches of the abdominal aorta?

T12 - Celiac trunk and inferior phrenic

L1 - SMA, suprarenal arteries, renal arteries

L2 - Gonadal arteries

L3 - IMA

L4 - Right and left common iliacs

40

The right gonadal vein ends as a tributary in the _______.

IVC

41

The left renal vein receives which 2 tributaries?

left gonadal vein and left suprarenal vein

42

What are the tributaries of the IVC?

Union of two common iliac veins ( from external & internal iliac veins) form the IVC

right gonadal & right suprarenal veins.

right and left renal veins

lumbar veins

inferior phrenic veins.

hepatic veins

Azygos vein

43

Where does the cisterna chyli, which gives the thoracic duct, drain?

It drains at the junction between the left subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein ( jugular subclavian junction )

44

What is the route of the left renal vein?

The left renal vein runs anterior to the abdominal aorta and left renal artery.

45

What 3 structures are located at the hilum of the kidney (anterior to posterior)?

VAP

renal vein
renal artery
renal pelvis