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Flashcards in The Peritoneum Deck (45):
1

The pancreas is a _________ organ.

retroperitoneal

2

Name of the peritoneal fold of the stomach?

Omentum - Lesser and greater omentum

3

Name of the peritoneal fold of the small intestine?

Mesentery

4

Name of the peritoneal fold of the large intestine?

Meso-colon - Mesoappendix, transverse mesocolon, sigmoid mesocolon

5

What are the retroperitoneal, partially covered structures?

SAD PUCKER

Suprarenal glands
Aorta and IVC
Duodenum (2nd, 3rd, 4th parts)
Pancreas
Ureter
Colon (Ascending and Descending)
Kidney
Esophagus
Rectum

6

How do you find the greater and lesser sacs of the peritoneum communicate?

Through the Epiploic foramen or Foramen of Winslow’s.

7

What generates the lesser sac of the peritoneum?

Stomach rotation and growth of the liver

8

The liver and stomach are connected by the __________.

Lesser omentum

9

What are the single branches of the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and their levels?

Foregut - Celiac Trunk - T12

Midgut: Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) - L1

Hindgut: Inferior mesenteric artery (SMA) - L3

10

What are the branches of the celiac trunk?

Left gastric (upward)
Splenic artery (to the left)
Common hepatic (to the right)

11

What is the route and target organs of the left gastric artery?

Enters into the lesser omentum and sends branches to the esophagus and lesser curvature of the stomach.

12

Name the anastomosis of the left gastric artery.

The left gastric artery ends by anastomosing with the right gastric artery at lesser curvature of stomach.

13

What is the route of the splenic artery?

Tortuous artery runs behind the stomach along the superior border of pancreas and ends in the lienorenal ligament.

14

What are the target organs and branches of the splenic artery?

Gives the stomach short gastric arteries and the left gastroepiploic artery (both run in the gastrosplenic ligament)

It also supplies the spleen.

15

Name the anastomosis of the left gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) artery.

The left gastroepiploic (gastro-omental) artery ends by anastomosing with right gastroepiploic artery at the greater curvature of stomach.

16

Name the 1st branch of the common hepatic artery and its branches.

First branch: gastroduodenal artery

Gives off the superior pancreatic duodenal artery and the right gastro-omental

17

Name the continuation of the common hepatic artery and its branches.

Continues as hepatic proper (to liver). Gives off the right gastric artery.

18

Name the final continuation of the common hepatic artery and its branches.

Continues as the right and left hepatic which give the cystic artery branch (to gall bladder) of the right hepatic artery.

19

Why is the greater omentum the policeman of the stomach?

It prevents the spread of infection.

20

What are the parts of the stomach?

Cardia (sphincter)
Fundus
Body
Pylorus (antrum, canal and sphincter).

21

What structures are in the free border/epiploic foramen of the lesser omentum?

Three structure are in its free border:

Right: Hepatic duct
Left: Hepatic artery
Posterior: Portal vein (duct and artery)

22

What ligaments make-up the lesser omentum?

Hepatogastric and Hepatoduodenal ligaments

23

What ligaments make-up the greater omentum?

Gastrosplenic, Gastrophrenic, Gastrocolic and lienorenal (splenorenal)

24

Which part of the small intestine is in the intraperitoneal cavity?

The 1st part of the duodenum is held in the intraperitoneum due to the hepatoduodenal ligament.

25

What are the peritoneal ligaments of the liver?

Anterior and posterior coronary ligaments
Falciform ligament
Right and left triangular ligaments
Lesser Omentum

26

What are the fissures of the liver?

Fissure for Ligamentum venosum (From ductus venosus)

Fissure for Ligamentum teres (round ligament) - (from obliterated umbilical vein)

Fossa of gall bladder

Fissure for IVC

Porta Hepatis (portal triad)

27

What are the anatomical and functional divisions of the liver?

The falciform ligament and fissures for ligamentum teres and venosum divide the liver into right anatomical lobe (contain the caudate and quadrate) and left lobe.

Fossas of gallbladder and IVC divide the liver into right lobe and left functional lobe (contain the caudate and quadrate)

28

What is the arterial and oxygen supply of the liver?

Hepatic proper artery (25%) and portal vein (75%). Each provides 50% of the oxygen supply to the liver.

29

What is the blood supply of the caudate and quadrate lobes of the liver?

Caudate and quadrate lobes are supplied by the left hepatic artery and left branch of the portal vein.

30

Build the biliary tree (3 steps).

The right and left hepatic ducts form the common hepatic duct.

The common hepatic duct receives the cystic duct from the gall bladder. Together, they form the common bile duct.

The common bile duct receives the main pancreatic duct. Together they empty into the ampulla of vater (at 2nd part of duodenum in major duodenal papillae).

31

What duct drains the gall bladder?

the cystic duct

32

What is the function of the Sphincter of Oddi?

Sphincter of Oddi is a layer of circular muscle surrounding the lower end of bile duct, pancreatic duct and ampulla, controlling the flow of bile and pancreatic secretions.

33

The __________ ligament is continuous with the falciform ligament.

Round ligament

34

What are the surfaces of the spleen?

Diaphragmatic surface (9,10,11)
Visceral surface

35

What area results in a ruptured spleen?

A fracture to the 9th, 10th or 11th rib can rupture the spleen.

36

What is the location and ligaments of the spleen?

The spleen is wedged between the stomach and left kidney.

It is connected to them by the gastrosplenic and lienorenal (splenorenal) ligaments. The splenocolic ligament holds the spleen in place.

37

What 2 vessels cross the body and uncinate process of the pancreas?

Superior mesenteric artery and Superior mesenteric vein

38

The _____________ artery runs at the upper border of the pancreas.

Splenic

39

The _________ vein and the ___________ vein unite at the neck of the pancreas to form the ___________ vein.

The splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein unite at the neck of the pancreas to form the portal vein.

40

What structure is at the tail of the pancreas?

The splenorenal ligament

41

What is the function of the main pancreatic duct of Wirsung?

The main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung) drains the tail, body, neck and upper part of the head. It joins the bile duct to form a short tube called Hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater), the ampulla opens on the major duodenal papilla at 2nd part of duodenum

42

At what level is the superior portion of the duodenum and what is attached?

L1 - attached by the hepatoduodenal ligament

43

At what level is the descending (2nd) portion of the duodenum and what does it contain?

L2 - contains major duodenal papillae and Ampulla of Vater

44

At what level is the inferior (3rd) portion of the duodenum and what does it contain?

L3 - location of the uncinate process and SMV/SMA

45

At what level is the ascending (2nd) portion of the duodenum?

L4 - attached to suspensory ligament that forms the duodenojejunal flexure