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Flashcards in Gluteal Region Deck (61):
1

What innervates the gluteus maximus?

Inferior gluteal nerve

2

What are the main actions of the gluteus maximus?

Extends hip and knee
Laterally rotates the hip

3

What innervates the gluteus medius?

Superior gluteal nerve

4

What are the main actions of the gluteus medius?

Abducts and medially rotates thigh at hip
Tilts pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

5

What innervates the gluteus minimus?

Superior gluteal nerve

6

What are the main actions of the gluteus minimus?

Abducts and medially rotates thigh at hip
Tilts pelvis on leg when opposite leg is raised

7

What innervates the inferior gamellus?

Nerve to quadratus femoris

8

What is the main action of the inferior gamellus?

Laterally rotates extended thigh at hip

9

What innervates the obturator internus?

Nerve to obturator internus

10

What is the main action of the obturator internus?

WEAKLY laterally rotates extended thigh
Abducts flexed thigh at hip

11

What innervates the piriformis?

Ventral rami of L5, S1, S2 (and nerve to piriformis)

12

What is the main action of the piriformis?

Laterally rotates extended thigh
Abducts flexed thigh at hip

13

What innervates the quadratus femoris?

Nerve to quadratus femoris

14

What is the main action of the quadratus femoris?

Laterally rotates thigh and stabilizes hip

15

What innervates the superior gamellus?

Nerve to obturator internus

16

What is the main action of the superior gamellus?

Laterally rotates extended thigh at the hip

17

What innervates the tensor fasciae latae?

Superior gluteal nerve

18

What is the main action of the tensor fasciae latae?

Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh at hip
Helps gluteus maximus to keep knee extended

19

What is the origin of the obturator internus?

Obturator membrane (travels out of the lesser sciatic foramen)

20

What is the insertion of the obturator internus?

Greater trochanter of femur

21

What is the origin of the gemellus superior?

Spine of ischium

22

What is the insertion of the gemellus superior?

Greater trochanter of femur

23

What is the origin of the gemellus inferior?

Ischial tuberosity

24

What is the insertion of the gemellus inferior?

Greater trochanter of femur

25

What is the origin of the piriformis?

anterior sacrum and greater sciatic notch

26

What is the insertion of the piriformis?

Greater trochanter of femur

27

What is the origin of the gluteus minimus?

The ilium

28

What is the insertion of the gluteus minimus?

Greater trochanter of femur

29

What is the origin of the gluteus medius?

The ilium

30

What is the insertion of the gluteus medius?

Greater trochanter of femur

31

What is the origin of the gluteus maximus?

Ilium, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament

32

What is the insertion of the gluteus maximus?

Gluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract

33

What is the origin of the quadratus femoris?

Ischial tuberosity

34

What is the insertion of the quadratus femoris?

Quadrate tubercle of femur and lesser trochanter

35

What is the origin of the tensor fascia lata?

The Iliac Crest

36

What is the insertion of the tensor fascia lata?

The iliotibial tract

37

What are the contributions to the sciatic nerve?

L4, L5, S1, S2, S3

38

The sciatic nerve exits the _______ below the ___________.

The sciatic nerve exits the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis muscle.

39

What are the contributions to the superior gluteal nerve?

L4, L5, S1

40

What are the contributions to the inferior gluteal nerve?

L5, S1, S2

41

What are the contributions to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve?

S1, S2, S3

42

What are the contributions to the pudendal nerve?

S2, S3, S4

43

The ________________nerve travels with the sciatic nerve.

The Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve travels with the sciatic nerve.

44

The pudendal nerve and artery exits the ____________, re-enters the _____________ and run in the arcus tendineus on the obturator internus called ______________.

The pudendal nerve exits the greater sciatic foramen, re-enters the lesser sciatic foramen, and runs in the arcus tendineus on the obturator internus called Alcott's canal/pudendal canal

45

Any nerve or artery exiting above the piriformis is the __________________.

Any nerve or artery exiting above the piriformis is the superior gluteal nerve or artery.

46

Any nerve or artery exiting below the piriformis is the ______________________.


Any nerve or artery exiting below the piriformis is the inferior gluteal nerve or artery.

47

The ____________ sits on top of the piriformis inside the pelvis

The sacral plexus sits on top of the piriformis inside the pelvis

48

The ______________ travels from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity.

sacrotuberous ligament

49

The _____________ travels from the sacrum to the ischial spine.

sacrospinous ligament

50

Foramen above sacrospinous ligament:

greater sciatic foramen

51

Foramen below sacrospinous ligament:

Below sacrospinous ligament: lesser sciatic foramen

52

How does the aorta branch at L4?

The aorta branches into the right and left common iliacs. The right and left common iliacs branch into the internal and external iliacs. The internal division has an anterior and posterior division.

53

What are the branches off the anterior division of the internal iliac?

Umbilical Artery - gives Superior Vesicle Artery
Obturator Artery
Inferior Vesicle Artery/Uterine Artery in female - gives vaginal artery
Middle Rectal Artery
Inferior Gluteal Artery
Internal Pudendal Artery

54

What are the branches off the posterior division of the internal iliac?

Iliolumbar Artery
lateral sacral Artery
superior gluteal Artery

55

How does the external iliac artery change as it descends?

First the external iliac gives off the inferior epigastric artery. The external iliac becomes the femoral artery when it crosses under the inguinal ligament and enters the femoral triangle at front of thigh.

In the femoral triangle, the profunda femoris artery (deep femoral) branches from the femoral artery and gives 3 branches.

The femoral artery then travels down the adductor canal and gives the popliteal artery at the adductor hiatus.

56

What are the branches of the profunda femoris artery?

Perforating branches – perforate the adductor magnus

Lateral femoral circumflex artery – Wraps round the anterior, lateral side of the femur

Medial femoral circumflex artery – Wraps round the posterior side of the femur, supplying the neck and head of the femur.

57

Damage to what 2 arteries can lead to necrosis of the head of the femur?

Medial femoral circumflex artery and Artery to the head of the femur (in ligamentum teres)

58

What arteries compose the cruciate anastomosis of the anterior thigh?

FILM

First Perforating branches of profunda femoris artery

inferior gluteal artery
medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries

59

What is the purpose of the cruciate anastomosis?

To allow blood to bypass a clot in the external iliac/upper femoral artery)

60

What is Trendelenberg sign?

A superior gluteal nerve injury causes the unaffected hip to drop/tilt downward when standing on the affected hip.

61

What occurs with the gluteus medius when normal walking?

When one leg comes off the ground, the opposite gluteus medius contracts to keep the pelvis level.