Embryology of GU and GI Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embryology of GU and GI Systems Deck (30):
1

What embryological layer forms the gut tube?

The endoderm

2

The _______________ suspends the entire length of the gut from the posterior abdominal wall.

The Dorsal Mesentery
Suspends the entire length of the gut from the posterior abdominal wall

3

What 2 structures arise from the ventral mesentery?

the falciform ligament and lesser omentum

4

Name the 7 Derivatives of the Foregut.

1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum
Esophagus
Liver (Hepatic diverticulum)
Gall bladder (Hepatic diverticulum)
Biliary apparatus (Hepatic diverticulum)
Pancreas
Stomach

5

Name the 6 Derivatives of the Midgut.

Ascending colon
2nd, 3rd, 4th parts of duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Cecum with appendix
Proximal 2/3 of Transverse colon

6

Name the 4 Derivatives of the Hindgut.

Distal 1/3 of Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectum

7

What is the Blood Supply of the Embryological Gut?

Foregut - Celiac trunk
Midgut - superior mesenteric artery (SMA)
Hindgut - inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)

8

Define recanalization in the embryological gut tube.

Opens holes in the embryological gut tube

9

Define stenosis in the embryological gut tube.

Partial recanalization of the gut tube due to an inability to generate a full hole

10

Define atresia in the embryological gut tube.

A failure to recanalize at all; no hole opening in the gut

11

Define Duodenal atresia.

Duodenal atresia – the inability to pass food from the gut tube through to the duodenum because there is no hole

12

What is the Adult Derivative of the LEFT Umbilical Vein?

The left umbilical vein forms the ligamentum teres/round ligament of liver.

13

The stomach rotates ________ or _________on its longitudinal axis

The stomach rotates 90 degrees to the right or clockwise on its longitudinal axis

14

Midgut rotation is a _________ of rotation of ______ degrees around the _____________as its longitudinal axis for rotation.

Midgut rotation is a Counter-clockwise of rotation of 270 degrees around the Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) as its longitudinal axis for rotation.

15

What causes Omphalocele?

It results from failure of return of the intestine to the abdominal cavity (covered by peritoneum)

16

What forms from the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds?

The ventral pancreatic bud becomes most of the head of the pancreas, including the uncinate process

The dorsal pancreatic bud becomes the remainder of the pancreas

17

What forms the annular process of the pancreas?

The annular process is formed by fusion of ventral and dorsal buds all around the 2nd part of the duodenum

18

What are symptoms of an annular pancreas?

A baby will present with vomit that contains bile and complete/partial bowel obstruction

19

Hemorrhoids above the pectinate will be _________ because of ________ innervation.

Hemorrhoids above the pectinate will be painless because of GVA visceral innervation.

20

Hemorrhoids below the pectinate will be _________ because of ________ innervation.

Hemorrhoids below the pectinate will be painful because of GSA somatic innervation.

21

What is Congenital Megacolon (Hirschprung’s) and its cause.

A Congenital Abnormality: s a result of a failure to pass meconium in a full term baby.

Neural crest cells responsible for bowel peristalsis (autonomic innervation) fail to migrate, causing constipation, colonic dilation, and bowel obstruction (no autonomic innervation).

22

What is Meckel's (ileal) Diverticulum?

A congenital Abnormality due to a remnant of the vitelline duct that causes a syndrome of 2's:

2 feet from ileocolic IC valve
2 inches long
2% of population
2% symptomatic
2 types of ectopic tissue (gastric and pancreatic)
2 years of age at clinical presentation
2X more common in boys

23

The ______________ becomes the Median umbilical ligament .

The obliterated Urachus becomes the Median umbilical ligament .

24

The ____________ becomes the Medial umbilical folds.

The obliterated umbilical artery becomes the Medial umbilical folds.

25

The ____________ becomes the Medial umbilical folds.

The obliterated umbilical artery becomes the Medial umbilical folds.

26

What forms from the Mesonephric ducts?

Mesonephric ducts - gives the ureteric bud and trigone

27

What forms from the Ureteric bud?

Ureteric bud - ureter, renal pelvis, calices and collecting tubules

28

What is the trigone?

Trigone – triangular shaped area in the bladder connecting the opening of 2 ureters.

29

All the bladder is ____________ except the trigone, kidneys, and ureters, which are ________.

All the bladder is endoderm except the trigone, kidneys, and ureters, which are mesoderm.

30

What causes horseshoe kidney?

The kidneys normally ascend from the pelvis to the retroperitineum and the scrotum descends from the abdomen to the pelvis. Horseshoe kidney is caused by a failure of the kidneys to migrate and they stay in the pelvis, fused at their caudal ends.