Abdominal Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdominal Emergencies Deck (103)
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1

Esophagus

Posterior portion of pharynx
Like a deflated tube, allowing air to pass into trachea easily
Unable to dissolve food but helps transport

2

Gastric Distention

Occurs when too much positive pressure ventilation occurs and causes the esophagus to dialate and let air in impeding lung expansion

3

Peristalsis

Transports food from mouth to stomach using rhythmic contractions

4

Esophageal Veins

Veins intertwined around esophagus

5

Portal Vein

Conversion of esophageal veins.
Transports venous blood from GI Tract directly to the liver for nutrients that have been absorbed.
No valves exist.

6

Cardiac Sphincter

Doorway connecting esophagus and the stomach.
Called so because people that have regurgitation of acid from the stomach to the esophagus often feel as if they are having a heart attack

7

Stomach

Secretes HCl acid to break down food.
Contracts and mixes it's food until smooth consistency achieved.
Water and fat soluble substances dissolved

8

Pyloric Sphincter

Doorway between the inferior portion of stomach to the entry of the small intestine

9

Chyme

Material that exits the pyloric sphincter

10

Duodenum

First part of small intestine.
Connects gallbladder, liver and pancreas to the digestive system.

11

Liver

Produces bile and stored in gall bladder.
Also can promote carbohydrate conversion.
Liver can convert glycogen into glucose.
Fat and protein metabolism occurs when blood flows through the liver.
Detoxifies drugs, break downs red and white blood cells, stores vitamins and minerals.

12

Bile

Enzyme that helps break down fats

13

Small Intestine

Where 90% of all absorption occurs.
20' long.
Water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins absorbed by diffusion into blood stream.

14

Three sections of Small Intestine

Duodenum ( last part of upper GI )
Jejunum ( first part of lower GI )
Ilieum

15

Large Intestine

Or colon.
5' long.
All nutrients have already been dissolved by small intestine and waste is now called feces.
Cecum, Ascending Colon, Transverse Colon, Descending Colon, Sigmoidal Colon, Rectum
MAIN role of Large Intestine is to complete the resorption of water to solidify stool. If hindered, this process causes diarrhea.

16

Time of Digestion

From mouth to anus takes 8 to 72 hours.

17

Ascites

Fluid buildup in the abdomen

18

Striae

Stretch marks

19

Protuberant

Protruding abdomen

20

Scaphoid

Concave abdomen

21

Normal bowel sounds

Occur 5-30 times a minute

22

Borborygmi

Prolonged stomach growling indicating strong contractions of the intestines

23

Visceral Pain

Difficult to localize.
Describe as burning, cramping, or aching. Felt superficially.
Organ contracts too forcefully or is distended

24

Parietal Pain

Steady, achy pain. Easier to localize.
Pain increases with movement.
Caused by inflammation (bleeding or infection)

25

Somatic Pain

Localized pain, felt deeply.
Injury to tissue

26

Referred Pain

Pain originating one place and occurring elsewhere.
Occurs after somatic, visceral and parietal pain.

27

Orthostatic Vital

Vitals standing and sitting to gauge hypovolemia

28

Pain management for abdominal Pain

Morphine 5-10mg
Toradol 15-60mg
Fentanyl 50-100mcg
Demerol 50-150mg
Nubian 10mg

29

Medications for nausea

Zofran 4mg
Benadryl 10-50mg
Visatril 25-100mg IM
Phenegran 12.5-25mg

30

Hyponatremia

Low sodium
Swelling of cells
Symptoms- weakness, cramps, convulsions