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Flashcards in Principles of Pharmacology Deck (128)
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1

Pharmocology

Study of how various substances interact with or alter the function of living organisms

2

Opium Expolsuion Act

In 1909 was created to stop import of opium

3

Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

In 1938 the US FDA was given enforcement authority for rules requiring that new drugs were safe and pure

4

FDA

Responsible for approving new drugs

5

Controlled Substances Act

Classifies certain medications into five categories with potential of abuse and addiction

6

Schedule 1

High Abuse potential:
May not be prescribed, dispensed, used or administered for medical use and has no recognized medical purpose
Ex: heroin, marijuana, lsd

7

Schedule 2

High Abuse Potential:
Has a medical purpose but is required t be under constant lock and key, records kept and proper storage
Ex: fentanyl, Ritalin, cocaine

8

Schedule 3

Lower Potential Abuse:
Must remain under lock and key with records kept and proper storage
Ex: hydrocodone, codeine, ketamine

9

Schedule 4

Lower Potential Abuse:
S/a 2-5
Ex: diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam

10

Schedule 5

Lower Potential Abuse:
S/a 2-5
Ex: narcotic cough drops

11

Synthetic

Made in a labratory

12

Sources of Medication exampls

Plant: atropine, aspirin, digoxin, morphine
Animal: heparin, antivenom, insulin
Microorganism: streptiknoase, antibiotics
Minerals: iron, magnesium, Sulfate, lithium

13

Medication Name

Given three different names
Chemical: very long name (sodium bicarbonate)
Generic Name: usually contain stem at the end of the name to link it to other medications lam, pine, lol, lal
Brand Name: Lasix, Tamiflu, Lopressor makes it easier to remember drug generic name

14

Pharmacodynamics

When a medication alters a function or process in the body

15

Pharmokinetics

The action of the body on a medication

16

Receptor Site with Medication

Either
1: ion passages may open or close
2: bio mechanical messenger becomes activated initiating other reactions in cell
3: normal cell function prevented
4: normal or abnormal function of cell begins

17

Exogenous

From outside of the body

18

Agonist Medications

Initiate or alter a cellular activity by attaching to receptor sites, prompting a cell response
Ex: opiates

19

Antagonist Medications

Prevent endogenous or exogenous agonist chemicals from reaching cell receptor sites and initiating or altering a particular cellularactivity
Ex: nalaxone

20

Affinity

Ability of a medication to bind with a particular receptor site

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Medication Concentration and Affinity

Determine how many receptor sites are bound by that medication
-only certain amount of receptors and all receptors can be taken up

22

Minimum Concentration

Certain minimum of medication must be present to activate cellular activity

23

Threshold Level

When initiation or alteration of cellular activity begins

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Potency

The concentration of a medication required to intpitiate a cellular response
-when potency is low, a higher concentration is needed

25

Efficacy

Ability to initiate or alter cellular activity in a therapeutic or desired manner

26

One-Response Curve

Relationship of medication dose or concentration and efficacy
-once threshold is reached increasing dose increases efficacy until maximum effect range is reached then increasing dose has no effect

27

Competitive Antagonists

Temporarily bind with cellular receptor sites, displacing agonist chemicals
-until wasted naturally by kidneys

28

Noncompetetive Antagonists

Premnently bind with receptor sites and prevent activation by agonist chemicals
-effects continue until new receptor sites are made or until new cells are made
-Ex:
Ketamine NCA of Glutamate of the CNS
Aspirin NCA of Cyclooxygenase causing antiplatelet effects

29

Partial Agonist

Attach to cellular receptor sites but do not cause as much change as other agonists
-effectively lower efficacy of other agonists

30

Chelating Agents

Bind with heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and arsenic in the body nod creating a compound that can be eliminated