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Flashcards in Pathophysiology Deck (138)
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1

Pathophysiology

Study of the functioning of an organism in presence of disease

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Cell

Basic self sustaining unit of the human body

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Three Main Parts of Cell

Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus

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Cell Membrane

Consists of fat and protein
-surrounds dell and protects nucleus and organelles

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Organelles

Functional structure within the cells cytoplasm

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Inside of Organelle

Ribosomes, ER, Golgi Complex, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, Nucleus

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Ribosomes

Contain RNA and protein
-Responsible for controlling cellular activities
-interact with other amino chains to form proteins
-when attached to ER they for, rough ER

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ER

Network of tubules, vesicles and sacs
-Smooth ER builds fats
-Rough builds proteins

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Golgi Complex

Synthesis and packaging of various carbohydrates and complex protein molecules such as enzymes

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Lysosomes

Membrane bound vesicles that contain digestive enzymes
-intracellular digestion that breaks down organic debris, (bacteria) that have been taken into the cell

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Peroxisomes

Found in high concentrations in liver and neutralize toxins such as alcohol

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Mitochondria

Metabolic center of cell no produce ATP, major energy source in the cell

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Nucleus

Contains DNA in the chromosomes and RNA

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Epithelium

Covers external surfaces and lines hollow organs such as intestines, blood vessels and bronchial tubes
-absorb nutrients
-secrete body substances (sweat)

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Endothelial Cells

Epithelial cells that line vessels
-help regulate blood flow and have a role in blood clotting

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Connective Tissue

Binds other types of tissue to one another
-separated by non living extracellular matrix consisting of protein fibers and fluid
-collagen main protein in fluid
-adipose tissue is a connective tissue mainly made of large amounts of lipids (fats)
-blood is connective

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Muscle Tissue

Characterized by ability to contract
-Enclosed by fascia, envelope of fibrous material
Skeletal: striated volunTary
Cardiac: striated involuntary
Smooth: nonstriated involuntary

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Nerve Tissue

Transmit nerve impulses
Central and Peripheral

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Homeostasis

Same and steady

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Apoptosis

Normal cell death in which old cells are replaced by new cells

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Cell Signaling

Way that the cells communicate electrochemically to each other by releasing molecules (such as hormones) that bind to protein receptors on the cell surface.
In result, a triggered chemical reaction occurs and initiates a biological reaction

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Baroreceptors

Respond to changes in pressure usually within heart or main arteries

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Chemoreceptors

Sense changes in chemical composition of the blood, especially reduced oxygen levels and elevated CO levels

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Five Primary Ways to Release Heat

Convection, conduction, evaporation, radiation and respiration

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Ligand

"To tie or bind"
Are molecules that bind to receptor sites to form more complex structures
-Endogenous or Exogenous Ligands: produced by body or given into body

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Hormones

Substances found in tiny amounts by one specialized group of cells and then carried to another organ or group of cells and then carried to another organ or group to perform regulatory functions

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Endocrine Hormones

(Thyroid hormones and adrenal) carried to their target by the blood

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Exocrine Hormone

Reach target by a specific duct that opens into an organ (stomach acids and perspiration)

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Paracrine Hormones

(Histamines) diffuse through intracellular spaces to reach their target

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Electrolytes

Dissolved mineral salts that dissociate in a solution yielding ions (sodium, potassium, clalcium, chloride)
-have important role in cell signaling and in generating the Nervous System action potential