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Flashcards in Abdominal Viscera 1 Deck (46):
1

How long is the oesophagus?

25cm long

2

At what level does the oesophagus begin?

C6

3

At what level does the oesophagus pass through the diaphragm?

T10

4

What is the Z line?

The site where the inner mucosa changes from stratified squamous epithelium to stomach mucosa

5

What are the 3 sites of narrowing in the oesophagus?

upper oesophageal sphincter, aortic arch and LMB, diaphragmatic orifice

6

What are the 3 parts of the oesophagus?

Cervical, thoracic, abdominal

7

What is the arterial supply for the cervical oesophagus?

inferior thyroid artery

8

What is the venous drainage for the cervical oesophagus?

brachiocephalic system

9

What is the lymphatic drainage for the cervical oesophagus?

deep cervical nodes

10

What is the arterial supply for the thoracic oesophagus?

oesophageal branches from the aorta

11

What is the venous drainage of the thoracic oesophagus?

azygous vein

12

What is the lymphatic drainage for the thoracic oesophagus?

mediastinal nodes

13

What is the arterial supply for the abdominal oesophagus?

left gastric artery

14

What is the venous drainage of the abdominal oesophagus?

left gastric vein (portal)

15

What is the lymphatic drainage of the abdominal oesophagus?

pre-aortic nodes

16

What is a sliding hiatal hernia?

Where the stomach is pulled up through the diaphragmatic orifice

17

What is a paraoesophageal hernia?

Where the top of the stomach goes through the diaphragmatic orifice next to the oesophagus

18

Which type of hernia is more common?

sliding

19

In which quadrant is the stomach?

The LUQ

20

What is the cardiac orifice?

Where the oesophagus opens in to the stomach

21

What is the fundus?

The dome shaped part of the stomach which projects above the cardiac orifice and sits under the left dome of the diaphragm

22

What is the body of the stomach?

The stomach from the cardiac orifice to the angular notch

23

What is the pyloric antrum?

The funnel end of the stomach which narrows down to the pyloric canal

24

What is the pyloric canal?

The lumen which connects the stomach to the duodenum

25

What is the pyloric sphincter?

The sphincter around the pyloric canal - controls the flow of gastric contents

26

What are rugae?

Longitudinal mucosal folds that line the stomach

27

How long is the duodenum?

10 inches

28

How many parts is the duodenum divided into?

4

29

How long are the parts of the duodenum?

2 inches, 3 inches, 4 inches, 1 inch

30

What is the path of the 1st part of the duodenum?

Heads back towards the posterior abdominal wall to become retroperitoneal and lies on right psoas medial to the right kidney

31

What is the path of the 2nd part of the duodenum?

Vertical descent next to the head of the pancreas and hilum of the right kidney on psoas major

32

What is the path of the 3rd part of the duodenum?

Goes from right psoas to left psoas, crosses in front of the lumbar vertebral column, aorta and IVC

33

What is the path of the 4th part of the duodenum?

Curves anteriorly on left psoas

34

Where is the is the major duodenal papilla?

Halfway down the 2nd part of the duodenum

35

Where is the minor duodenal papilla?

One inch above the major duodenal papilla

36

How long is the jejunum and ileum?

4-6m

37

What percentage is the jejunum?

40%

38

What quadrant is the jejunum in?

The LUQ

39

What quadrant is the ileum in?

RLQ

40

How can you distinguish the jejunum and the ileum?

The jejunum has a thicker wall, less fat in the mesentery, longer vasa recta and fewer arterial arcades

41

What muscle is around the jejunum and ileum?

An outer continuous longitudinal coat and circular smooth muscle on the inside

42

How long are the large intestines?

1.5m

43

What is tenia coli?

3 bands on longitudinal muscle on the outer coat of large intestines

44

What are haustrations?

The gatherings of the mucosal tube because of the tenia coli

45

What are epiploic appendices?

Fat tags that hang off the large intestine

46

What is the caecum?

The pouch of the large intestine below the ileocaecal junction