Infectious Causes of Hepatitis 1 Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal > Infectious Causes of Hepatitis 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infectious Causes of Hepatitis 1 Deck (46):
1

What is hepatitis?

Inflammation of the liver

2

How long does acute hepatitis last?

weeks to months

3

What are the symptoms of acute hepatitis?

non specific flu like symptoms, jaundice, dark urine, pale faeces

4

How long does chronic hepatitis last?

years to a lifetime

5

What are the symptoms of chronic hepatitis?

general malaise with progression to cirrhosis and possibly liver cancer

6

What is fulminant hepatitis?

very quick necrosis of hepatic tissue - leads to death due to acute liver failure

7

What causes the liver damage?

The immune response

8

What does exposure to hepatitis early in life mean?

The acute disease will be less severe but there are higher rates of chronic infection

9

If you immunised against one hepatitis virus are you immunised against them all?

No - the viruses are unrelated and so there is no cross protection

10

Which hepatitis viruses cause chronic infection?

HBV and HCV

11

What is the route of transmission for hepatitis A and E?

faecal oral

12

What type of infection is caused by hepatitis A and E?

acute

13

How are hepatitis A and E prevented?

sanitation and also immunisation for A

14

What areas have the highest prevalence for hepatitis A?

Areas of poor sanitation - Asia, Africa, South America

15

Which area of Australia has the highs prevalence of hepatitis A?

indigenous communities

16

To what family does the hepatitis A virus belong?

picornaviridae family

17

To what genus does the hepatitis A virus belong?

hepatovirus

18

What is the structure of the hepatitis A virus?

non-enveloped + sense ssRNA virus

19

Where do hepatitis A and E replicated?

Both in the intestinal epithelia and in hepatocytes

20

How is hepatitis A and E excreted?

In the bile which goes into the faeces

21

Is there perinatal transmission of hepatitis A and E?

No

22

What does liver enzyme ALT indicate?

The presence of replicating virus

23

Which antibodies are present in response to hepatitis A and E?

IgM first then IgG

24

How is acute viral hepatitis diagnosed?

serological tests or nucleic acid tests

25

How can you tell in a serological test if the infection is acute?

Either by the presence of IgM antibodies or a rising titre of IgG antibodies

26

What is the incubation period of hepatitis A?

on average 30 days

27

What are the complications of hepatitis A?

fulminant hepatitis or cholestatic hepatitis

28

Can hepatitis A become a chronic infection?

no

29

How long do the symptoms of hepatitis A last?

2-3 weeks

30

What is the treatment for hepatitis A?

supportive rehydration and nutrition

31

How effective is the hepatitis A vaccine?

100% effective after 2 doses

32

Why is the hepatitis A vaccine expensive to produce?

Because it has to be in diploid cells and has to have testing to check that the virus is fully inactivated

33

What family does the hepatitis E virus belong to?

Hepeviridae

34

What genus does the hepatitis E virus belong to?

hepevirus

35

What is the structure of the hepatitis E virus?

Non enveloped icosahedral with + sense ssRNA

36

Which of hepatitis E and hepatitis A viruses is more fragile in the environment?

hepatitis E

37

What is the distribution of hepatitis E virus?

Asia, Africa and Central America

38

What is the incubation period for hepatitis E?

40 days

39

Which group of patients have increased risk of fatality from hepatitis E?

pregnant women

40

Can hepatitis E lead to a chronic infection?

no

41

Is there a vaccine currently for hepatitis E?

No

42

What are the symptoms of hepatitis E?

jaundice, malaise, anorexia, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, nausea and vomiting, fever, pruritus

43

What is the lab diagnosis of hepatitis E?

serology, nucleic acid tests, and cultured in vitro

44

What is the treatment for hepatitis E?

supportive therapy - no antiviral available

45

Is immune serum globulin therapy effective to prevent hepatitis A and E?

A yes but E no

46

Is a vaccine possible for hepatitis E?

Yes - it is a good prospect because it can be cultured in vitro