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Flashcards in Development 1 Deck (42):
1

What is a congenital disorder?

a structural disorder or functional disorder present at birth due to a problem with genes, chromosomes, intrauterine environment, teratogens or metabolic requirement

2

What is the frequency of birth defects?

1/33

3

What is the most common birth defect?

heart defect - 1/200

4

What is a morula?

A 16 cell ball at around 3 days

5

What is a blastocyst?

A cell mass with a cavity (blastocoele) at 4 days

6

What are trophoblasts?

The cells around the outside of the blastocyst that will make up the extra embryonic structures

7

What is the inner cell mass?

The cells at one pole of the blastocyst that will end up making the embryo

8

When does the blastocyst implant on the wall of the uterus?

5-10 days

9

What happens at the two germ layer stage?

The inner cell mass splits into the epiblast and the hypoblast - the epiblast will form the embryo and the hypoblast is extra embryonic

10

What is the cavity formed by the epiblast?

The amniotic cavity

11

What is the cavity formed by the hypoblast?

The yolk sac

12

What happens at the three germ layer stage?

The epiblast forms 3 layers by gastrulation - endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm

13

What does the ectoderm give rise to?

The nervous system and the epidermis

14

What does the mesoderm give rise to?

Blood cells, heart, kidneys, gonads, connective tissue (bone and muscle)

15

What does the endoderm give rise to?

The epithelial lining of hollow organs (gut, lungs, liver)

16

What is the notochord?

The first identifiable structure - a stiffened rod that runs down the midline and organises tissues around it

17

What happens to the ectoderm above the notochord?

It forms the neural plate which will form a neural tube to form the CNS

18

What is the neural crest?

The cells at the top of the neural tube which will form parts of the nervous system that aren’t part of the CNS e.g. enteric ganglia, sympathetic ganglia etc but will also form non neuronal cells like the muscle, cartilage and bone of the skull, jaws, face and pharynx and melanocytes and dentine

19

What causes a cleft lip and palate?

failure of the neural crest to migrate forward and meet at the midline

20

What are the derivatives of the mesoderm?

dermis, muscles, skeleton, urogenital tract, heart and blood vessels, wall of gut and respiratory tract, hemopoietic tissue, pleura, peritoneum, pericardium

21

What are the 3 separate zones of the mesoderm?

paraxial mesoderm (closest to the notochord), lateral mesoderm (further from the notochord), intermediate mesoderm (in between)

22

What does the intermediate mesoderm become?

The urogenital system

23

What does the paraxial mesoderm become?

the axial skeleton, muscles attached to the axial skeleton and limbs, the dermis of the skin

24

What does the lateral mesoderm become?

The muscle of the body wall, the skeleton of the limb, the pleural and peritoneum, blood, heart, walls of gut and respiratory tissues

25

What are somitomeres?

swellings down the length of the paraxial mesoderm

26

What are somites?

A somitomere that has broken free

27

Where does the first somite appear?

At the 8th somitomere and then progressively down

28

What does the somite split into?

sclerotome and dermomyotome

29

What does the dermomyotime slit into?

The dermatome and myotome

30

What does the sclerotome become?

the bones of the axial skeleton

31

What does the dermatome become?

The dermis of the skin

32

What does the myotome become?

back muscle and limb muscle

33

What are pharyngeal arches?

Modified gills

34

When does limb development begin?

At the end of the 4th week

35

What is limb growth initiated by?

mesoderm

36

What is the limb field?

a patch of mesoderm - the central region gives rise to the limb and the peripheral region gives rise to the shoulder girdle and flank tissue

37

What is limb growth continued by?

ectoderm

38

What causes diplopodia?

splitting of the ectodermal ridge controlling limb growth

39

What causes the sculpting of digits?

apoptosis

40

What causes syndactyly?

failure of apoptosis

41

What is the commonest limb abnormality?

congenital hip dislocation caused by malformation of the acetabulum

42

What is amelia or meromelia?

Absent or reduced limbs