Flashcards in Jaundice Deck (20)
What is the concentration of plasma bilirubin that will cause jaundice?
What is the first tissue to change colour with jaundice?
What carries unconjugated bilirubin in the cytosol of hepatocytes?
What are the three categories of causes of jaundice?
pre-hepatic, hepatic and post hepatic
What are the pre-hepatic causes of jaundice?
haemolysis and failed erythropoesis
What are the hepatic causes of jaundice?
rifampicin (interferes with bilirubin uptake), viral hepatitis, drug induced hepatitis, gilbert’s syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, cirrhosis, tumours
What are the post-hepatic causes of jaundice?
gallstones, carcinoma of pancreas or biliary tree, cholangitis
What are some causes of haemolytic anemia?
hypersplenism, autoimmunity, toxin made by bacteria, trauma, copper, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell anemia
What type of bilirubin is found in pre-hepatic jaundice?
unconjugated bilirubin over 60 micromole
What is the normal amount of plasma unconjugated bilirubin?
What happens to urine urobilinogen in pre-hepatic jaundice?
What are the causes of neonatal jaundice?
increased haem catabolism, immaturity of the liver, different blood type to mum, G6PD deficiency, birth trauma, premature birth, breast feeding, hepatic inflammation
How is neonatal jaundice treated?
What is the serum total bilirubin in newborns?
What key elements of hepatocytes to newborns not have sufficient levels of increasing their jaundice?
ligandin and UDPGT
What is Gilbert’s syndrome?
a decreased conjugation of bilirubin - poor action of UDPGT
What are the symptoms of Gilbert’s syndrome?
some hyperbilirubinemia but normal liver biopsy and normal lifespan - often sub clinical
What is rotor disease?
an inherited cause of hyperbilirubinemia with unknown defect
How do G6PD deficiency cause jaundice?
causes haemolytic anemia due to the unstable enzyme causing oxidative damage in red blood cells