Jaundice Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal > Jaundice > Flashcards

Flashcards in Jaundice Deck (20):
1

What is the concentration of plasma bilirubin that will cause jaundice?

35 micromole

2

What is the first tissue to change colour with jaundice?

sclera

3

What carries unconjugated bilirubin in the cytosol of hepatocytes?

ligandin

4

What are the three categories of causes of jaundice?

pre-hepatic, hepatic and post hepatic

5

What are the pre-hepatic causes of jaundice?

haemolysis and failed erythropoesis

6

What are the hepatic causes of jaundice?

rifampicin (interferes with bilirubin uptake), viral hepatitis, drug induced hepatitis, gilbert’s syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, cirrhosis, tumours

7

What are the post-hepatic causes of jaundice?

gallstones, carcinoma of pancreas or biliary tree, cholangitis

8

What are some causes of haemolytic anemia?

hypersplenism, autoimmunity, toxin made by bacteria, trauma, copper, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell anemia

9

What type of bilirubin is found in pre-hepatic jaundice?

unconjugated bilirubin over 60 micromole

10

What is the normal amount of plasma unconjugated bilirubin?

<20 micromole

11

What happens to urine urobilinogen in pre-hepatic jaundice?

increased

12

What are the causes of neonatal jaundice?

increased haem catabolism, immaturity of the liver, different blood type to mum, G6PD deficiency, birth trauma, premature birth, breast feeding, hepatic inflammation

13

How is neonatal jaundice treated?

phototherapy

14

What is the serum total bilirubin in newborns?

100 micromole

15

What key elements of hepatocytes to newborns not have sufficient levels of increasing their jaundice?

ligandin and UDPGT

16

What is Gilbert’s syndrome?

a decreased conjugation of bilirubin - poor action of UDPGT

17

What are the symptoms of Gilbert’s syndrome?

some hyperbilirubinemia but normal liver biopsy and normal lifespan - often sub clinical

18

What is rotor disease?

an inherited cause of hyperbilirubinemia with unknown defect

19

How do G6PD deficiency cause jaundice?

causes haemolytic anemia due to the unstable enzyme causing oxidative damage in red blood cells

20

How do you diagnose the cause of jaundice?

(Flow chart in Evernote)