Flashcards in Abdominal Viscera Deck (78):
What is found in the foregut?
What is another term for the midgut?
Superior mesenteric artery
What is found in the midgut?
Cecum and appendix
2/3 of transverse colon
What is the vasculature of the hindgut?
Inferior mesenteric artery
What is found in the hindgut?
1/3 transverse colon
Descending and sigmoid colon
Where does the thoracic esophagus piercs the diaphragm?
Where does the esophagus enter the stomach?
The cardiac orifice.
This is about T11
Where is the esophageal hiatus?
Where do structures pass through the diaphragm?
At T8, T10 and T12
What is the term for openings in the diaphragm?
Where are the IVC and aorta located?
IVC is at T8
Aorta is at T12
What is a sliding hiatal hernia?
When the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm enlarges or weakens.
The abdominal esophagus and parts of the stomach herniate into the thorax.
What is a paraesophageal hiatal hernia?
A defect in the diaphragm. Next to the esophageal hiatus.
It permits the fundus of the stomach to herniate (not usually the esophagus).
Where is the stomach located?
The left hypochondriac and epigastric regions.
Where is the stomach fixed?
Left end fixed at T10-11
Right end fixed at L1-2
Area between is variable.
What are the parts of the stomach?
Cardiac part, cardiac orifice
Pyloric antrium (entrance t othe pylorace)
What is the pyloric orifice?
The entrance to the duodenum.
What are structures posterior to the stomach?
Left suprarenal gland
Uppper left kidney
Left colic flexure
Left transverse colon
What are structures anterior to the stomach?
Anterior abdominal wall
Left costal margin
Left and quadrate lobes of the liver
What is the small intestine located between?
The stomach and large intestine.
What is the small intestine subdivided into?
Where is the duodenum located?
Approximately at L1 to L4 vertebral bodies.
Where does the duodenum start?
At the pylorus of the stomach and ends at the dodenal-jejunal junction.
What are the four parts of the duodenum?
The duodenum is covered anteriorly by the peritoneum except where the ...
Mesocolon of the transverse colon crosses the second part.
What is the first part of the duodenum surrounded by?
The hepatoduodenal ligament.
Where does the root of the mesentry begin?
At the duodeno-jejunal flexure
Where does the first part of the duodenum start?
At the pyloric sphincter.
What holds the first part of the duodenum in place?
The hepatoduodenal ligament.
What are posterior and superior to the first part of the duodenum?
What is anterior to the second part of the duodenum?
The fundus of the gall bladder
Right lobe of the liver
Where do the bile and pancreatic ducts enter the second part of the duodenum?
At the major duodenal papilla
Where do the superior mesenteric artery and vein and the root of the mesentry cross the duodenum?
At the anterior surface of the 3rd part of the duodenum.
What part of the duodenum is not covered by the peritoneum?
The fourth part
What holds the fourth part of the duodenum in place?
The suspensory ligament of the duodenum (of Treitz).
It anchors the fourth part of the duodenum to the right crus of the diaphragm.
What occupies most of the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen and pelvis?
The jejunum and ileum
Where does the jejunum begin?
At the duodenal-jejunal junction.
The ileum ends at the ileo-cecal valve.
What vasculature is found in the jejunum?
The long vasa recta
What vasculature is found in the ileum?
The shorter vasa recta.
What contains more plicae circularis, the jejunum or ileum?
What is the most common congeintal anomaly of the small intestine?
Meckel's ileal diverticulum.
Where does the mesentery attach?
To the posterior body wall.
What does the mesentery cross?
3rd part of duodenum
Right gonadal vessels
Right psoas major
What is the mesentery made up of?
2 layers of peritoneum with nerves, lymph nodes and vessels, fat arteries and veins running between them.
What are functions of the large intestine?
Fecal formation, transport and evacuation, water absorption and mucus secretion.
What are taenia coli?
3 bands of longuitudinal muscle on the outside of the colon.
They converge at the root of the appendix.
What do taenia coloi produce?
Haustrae (sacculations) that slow the movement of fecs
What are appendices epiploicae?
Tags of fat that are characteristic of the large intestine.
What are the ileal papilla?
A cone-like projection of the ileum into the cecum.
Where is the opening of the appendix found?
Inferior to the ileal papilla
Where is the vermiform appendix?
Usually attached to the posterio-medial part of the cecum.
It is located at the junction of 3 taenia coli.
It is 9 - 10 cm long and supported by a mesoappendix.
Where is the right colic flexure?
Where is the left colic flexure?
What parts of the colon are secondarily retroperitoneal?
Ascending and descending colon
What parts of the colon are intraperitoneal?
Transverse and sigmoid colon
Where is the spleen found?
In the left hypochondria region.
It parallels the left ribs 9, 10 & 11
What is the spleen covered by?
What does the spleen develop from?
Where is the pancreas secondarily retroperitoneal?
At about L1 - L2
What are the regions of the pancreas?
What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla?
Where the main pancreatic duct joins the bile duct to form the second part of the duodenum.
This forms the major duodenal papilla.
Where does the accessory pancreatic duct enter the duodenum?
At the more superior minor duodenal papilla
Where is most of the liver located?
In the right upper quadrant
What are the four lobes of the liver?
What is the falciform ligament?
A double layer of peritoneum that connects the liver to the anterior wall.
What attaches the liver to the anterior body wall?
What is found on the visceral surface of the liver?
Lobes of the liver
Right, left, caudate, quadrate
What is the porta hepatis?
A transverse fissue between caudate and quadrate lobes that transmits the portal triad.
What is found in the portal triad?
Where is the ligamentum ters found?
On the edge of the falciform. It is an obliterated umbilical vein.
What is the ligamentum venosum?
The old ductus venosus.
It is used to connect the umbilical vein with the inferior veina cava.
What are the peritoneal attachments of the liver?
Falciform ligament with ligamentum teres
Lesser omentum with hepatoduodenal and hepatogastic ligaments.
Where does the gall bladder and biliary tract lie?
In the hepatic fossa
What is the lowest, widest part of the gall bladder?
It contact anterioes abdominal wall at the midclavicular line.
What are the parts of the gall bladder?
What do the right and left hepatic ducts form?
The common hepatic duct
Wha is the bile duct formed from?
The cystic and common hepatic ducts.
It goes posterior and inferior to the first part of the duodenum, posterior to the head of the pancreas, enters the 2nd part of the duodenum with the pancreatic duct.