Posterior Leg Flashcards Preview

A. White- Human Anatomy > Posterior Leg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Posterior Leg Deck (97):
1

What is the largest foot bone, and what does it articulate with?

calcaneus

superiorly = talus

anteriorly = cuboid

2

What is the sustentaculum tali?

A shelf-like projection that supports talus and provides groove for flexor hallucis longus.

3

What does the navicular articulate with?

posteriorly = talus head

anteriorly = 3 cuneiforms

laterally = cuboid

4

What muscle attaches at the navicular tuberosity?

tibialis posterior

5

What muscles are in the superifical posterior group?

gastrocnemius

soleus

plantaris

6

What muscles are in the deep posterior group?

popliteus

flexor hallucis longus

flexor digitorum longus

tibialis posterior

7

The tibial nerve and posterior tibial vessels are ____ to transverse crural intermuscular septum

deep

8

What is the most superficial posterior compartment muscle?

gastrocnemius

9

What joints do the gastrocnemius cross?

knee and ankle joints.

10

What are the actions of the gastrocnemius?

plantar flexion and flexion of the leg at the knee joint.

11

What is the insertion of the gastrocnemius?

posterior surface of calcaneus via tendo calcaneus.

12

The medial and lateral tubercles have a groove for what tendon?

Flexor hallucis longus tendon

13

The lateral head of the gastrocnemius may have what bone close to its proximal attachment?

fabella. It provides leverage for lateral head of gastrocnemius.

14

If there is a fabellar stress fracture, what are the consequences?

total knee replacement

15

What is the soleus?

A broad, flat multipennate muscle that lies deep to the gastrocnemus.

16

What are the attachments of the soleus?

soeal line of tibia

posterior head of the fibula and superior 1/4 of posterior fibula

17

Where does the soleus insert?

Into the posterior surface of calcaneus via tendo calcaneus (achilles tendone_

18

What is the action of the soleus?

plantar flexion

19

What do the soleus and gastrocnemius form?

the triceps surae

20

What is the plantaris muscle?

A small muscle with a short belly and long tendon.
It is often absent.

21

Where does the plantaris attach?

Lateral end of lateral supracondylar line

22

What are the actions of the plantaris?

Weak plantar flexion and leg flexion

23

The plantaris muscle participates in leg flexion. What is another role that the plantris plays in movement?

proprioception

24

What tendon is commonly used in reconstructive surgery for hand tendons?

long tendon

25

The plantaris can possibly rupture during what ankle movements?

violent ankle movements (dorsiflexsion of ankle joints).

26

What are the four deep posterior muscles?

popliteus

flexor hallicis longus

flexor digitorum longus

tibialis posterior

27

What muscle forms the inferior floor of the popliteal fossa?

popliteus

28

Where does the popliteus attach?

Lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle and lateral meniscus.

Also the posterior tibia (superior to soleal line)

29

What are the actions of the popliteus?

unlocks enxtended leg by laterally rotating femur on a stationary tibia

also flexes leg weakly

30

Whta arteries supply the popliteal fossa?

superior medial and lateral genicular arteries

inferior medial genicualr artery

inferior lateral genicular artery

31

What is the largest deep posterior muscle, and what does it lie deep to?

flexor hallucis longus

lies deep to soleus

32

What is the attachment of the flexor hallucis longus?

inferior 2/3 of posterior fibula

33

What is the distal attachment of the flexor hallucis longus?

base of distal phalanx of great toe

34

What are the actions of the flexor hallucis longus?

Flexes great toe

plantar flex foot at ankle joint.

35

Where is the flexor digitorum longus located?

Deep to soleus and posterior to tibia.

36

What is the attachment of the flexor digitorum longus?

posterior tibia (inferior to sloeal line)

37

The tendon of the flexor digitorum long passes ___ to tibialis posterior.

posterior

38

When does the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus divide into four tendons that pass lateral four digits?

near the middle of the sole

39

What is the distal attachment of the flexor digitorum longus?

distal phalanx base of lateral four digits

40

What are the actions of the flexor digitorum longus?

flexes lateral four digits

plantar flex foot at ankle joint.

41

What is the deepest posterior crural muscle?

tibialis posterior

42

What does the tibialis posterior lie between?

FDL and FHL

43

What is the proximal attachment of the tibialis posterior?

interosseous membrane

posterior tibia inferior to soleal line

posteromedial surface of fibula

44

What is the distal attachment of the tibialis posterior?

navicular tuberosity

cuneiforms

cuboid

2-4 metatarsal bases

45

What are the functions of the tibialis posterior?

inversion and planta flexsion.

46

What nerve supplies all posterior compartment muscles?

Tibial nerve

47

The tibial nerve passes with what vessels?

posterior tibial vessels

48

How does the tibial nerve leave the posterior compartment?

It passes deep to flexor retinaculum between medial malleolus and calcaneus

49

What does the tibial nerve eventually divide into?

Medial and lateral plantar nerves

50

What is the blood supply of the posterior compartment?

posterior tibial artery.

It gives rise to the fibular artery.

51

What is the largest branch of the posterior tibial artery?

fibular artery

52

What compartments does the fibular artery vascularize?

posterior and lateral compartments.

53

Where is the posterior tibial pulse palpated between?

posterior surface of medial malleolus

medial border of calcaneal tendon

54

THe posterior tibial pulse is used to examine patients with what disease?

occlusive peripheral arterial disease

55

What is the occlusive peripheral arterial disease caused by?

Ischemia of leg muscles due to narrowing or occlusion of leg arteries.

It is characterized by leg cramps and pain during walking

56

What is the fibular trochlea?

A ridge on the lateral surface of the calcaneus

57

What does the cuboid articulate with?

posteriorly = calcaneus

anteriorly = 4th and 5h metatarsals

medially = navicular and lateral cuneiform

58

What is the crural fascia continous with?

fascia lata

59

What fascia covers the leg muscles?

crural fascia

60

What does the crural fascial form distally?

extensor retinaculum

it prevents bowstringing during dorsiflexion

61

What nerve suppleis the anterior portion of the thigh?

femoral nerve

62

What nerve supplies the posterior portion of the thigh?

sciatic nerve

it is involved in flexion

63

What nerve innervates the medial thigh muscles?

obturator nerve

64

What are the anterior (extensor) compartment muscles?

Tibialis anterior

extensor hallucis longus

extensor digitorum longus

fibularis lertius

65

What are the primary functions of the anterior (extensor) compartment muscles?

dorsiflexion

toe extension

66

What is the tibialis anterior?

A long, thick muscle on the anterolateral surface of the tibia

67

Where does the tibialis anterior proximally attach?

lateral tibial condyle and superolateral 1/2 of tibia.

68

Where does the tibialis anterior distally attach?

Medial surfaceo f first cuneiform and first metatarsal base

69

What are the functions of the tibialis anterior?

dorsiflexion and inversion of toe

70

What are the proximal attachments of the extensor digotorum longus?

lateral tibial condyle

anterior fibular surface

interosseous membrane

71

What are the distal attachments of the extensor digitorum longus?

Lateral four proximal phalanges

distal phalanx

middle phalanx

72

What are the actions of the extensor digitorum longus?

Extension of lateral four digits

dorsiflexion

73

What is the proximal attchment of the fibularis tertius?

anteroinferior fibular surface

74

What is the distal attachment of the fibuarlis tertius?

dorsum of fifth metatarsal base

75

What are the actions of the fibularis tertius?

dorsiflexion

eversion

76

What is the proximal attachment of the extensor hallucis longus?

Anteriomedial fibular surface and interosseous membrane.

77

What is the distal attachment of the extensor hallucis longus?

base of distal phalanx of hallux

78

What are the functions of the extensor hallucis longus?

extend hallux

dorsiflex ankle

79

What nerve innvervates the anterior compartment?

deep fibular nerve

80

What does the deep fibular nerve supply?

anterior compartment muscles

ankle joint and metacarpal phalangeal joints

dorsal intrinsic foot muscles

skin between first and second digits

81

What artery arises from the popliteal artery?

anterior tibial artery.

82

What does the lateral compartment of the leg contain?

Fibularis brevis

Superificial fibular nerve

Fibularis longus

83

Where does the filbuaris longus muscle extend from?

Fibular head to sole of foot

84

What is the proximal attachment of the fibularis longus muscle?

head and superolateral 2/3 of fibula

85

What is the distal attachment of the fibularis longus muscle?

first metatarsal and medial cuneiform bone

86

What are the functions of the fibularis longus muscle?

eversion and plantar flexion

87

What is the fibularis brevis muscle deep to?

fibularis longus

88

What is the proximal attachment of the fibularis brevis muscle?

inferolateral 2/3 of tibia

89

What is the distal attachment of the fibularis brevis muscle?

dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of fifth metatarsal

90

What are the functions of the fibuarlis brevis muscle?

eversion

plantar flexion

91

What does the superficial fibular nerve supply?

anteroinferior leg

entrie dorsal surface of the foot

most of the dorsal aspect of the digits.

92

What is the most commonly injured lower extremity nerve?

common fibular nerve

93

What results from an injury to the common fibular nerve?

Paralysis of all anterior and lateral crural muscles.

94

Loss of dorsiflexion and eversion causes "foot drop". This is a result of injury to what nerve?

common fibular nerve

95

What is the largest branch of the posterior tibial artery?

fibular artery

96

Trauma to the crural fascia may cause what symptoms?

hemorrhage, edema and inflammation

97

Shin splints are a result of repetitive microtrauma towhat muscle?

tibialis anterior