Flashcards in Abnormal Psychology Deck (50):
purpose of clinical psychology:
to understand, prevent and relieve psychological distress or dysfunction and enhance well-being
the field of clinical psychology includes:
research into mental illness, psychological assessment, psychotherapy
what are the 5 branches of psychotherapy?
psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, behavioural and biological
what does the psychodynamic approach include?
psychoanalysis (freud) and brief psychodynamic therapies
what does the humanistic approach include?
client centered therapy (Rogers) and Gestalt therapy (Paris?)
what does the cognitive approach include?
rational-emotive therapy (ellis) and CBT (Beck)
what does the behavioural approach include?
classical conditioning (exposure, systematic desensitization, aversion therapy), operant conditioning( positive reinforcement and punishment), modelling (social skills training)
what does the behavioural approach include?
drug therapy, ECT, psychosurgery
what is Freud's "hysterical conversion neurosis" theory?
that inner tensions give rise to neurotic behaviour
what are the 3 methods of accessing the unconscious?
1. free analysis
2. analysis of dreams
3. Freudian slips
what are the 3 levels in freuds theory of personality?
Id (infant drive states), Ego (self), Super-ego (internalised social rules that inhibit Id)
according to freud, what are neurotic symptoms the result of?
conflicting demands of the Id and super-ego on the ego
according to freud, what do neurotic symptoms indicate?
the presence of unresolved, unconscious conflicts (often aggressive/sexual)
what did freud say phobias were a result of?
the 2 defence mechanisms: repression and displacement
what is the function of defence mechanisms?
neutralise tension from inner conflict
what is Stockholm syndrome an example of and what purpose does it serve?
a defence mechanism, identification. Purpose is to find similarities with captor in order to reduce inner tension
what are the 2 principles of psychoanalytical therapy?
Transference (patient displaces positive and negative feelings onto "blank screen" of analyst) and resistance (painful and distressing nature of self-understanding)
Milrod et al 2007 showed
significant efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapy on panic disorder
what is the principle of CBT
cognition affects emotion and behaviour, therefore cognitive restructuring can occur if dysfunctional schemata are identified and replaced
what are schemata
dysfunctional/maladaptive patterns of thinking
what does cognitive restructuring lead to?
emotional and behavioural changes rather than a cognitive goal
what is maladaptive evaluation?
generalisation, excessive and inappropriate responses to situations such that social, occupational and interpersonal functioning suffers.
what is abnormal anxiety a result of?
overactivation of schemata that encode and process threat activation
what is Beck, Emery & Greenbergs (1985) model of anxiety?
anxiety is proportional to perceived threat multiplied by the perceived cost of danger. also, anxiety is inversely proportional to the perceived ability to cope. maintenance factors in play to prevent extinction of schemata
conclusion drawn in the absence of sufficient evidence
conclusion drawn on the basis of just one of many elements of a situation
sweeping conclusion drawn on the basis of a single event
magnification & minimisation=
significance of a certain event is exaggerated/minimised
memory plays a role in maladaptive cognition as
it is involved in intrusive recollection
what does assessment of the stroop paradigm in panic disorder patients show?
that these patients process threat words in a very different way, as stroop interference is much higher
what is the stroop paradigm?
where ink colour doesn't match colour word, followed by interference because this is slower to read, these are then substituted with threat related words
Rational emotive therapy (ABCD model)
A: activating environmental effect---> B: beliefs activated by A----> C: emotional and behavioural consequences of B ----> D: disputing, and changing, of B---->B.
what tendency does the ABCD model dispute?
that people tend to view responses and behaviours (C) as a direct cause of A when it is in fact because of Bs.
irrational beliefs being replaced by rational alternatives is a feature of
rational emotive therapy
why is the faulty schema maintained in anxiety disorder?
because avoidance behaviours prevents disconfirmations of beliefs, and safety behaviours increase preoccupation
what is panic disorder
an idiosyncratic model, so stimuli are misinterpreted. Then, positive feedback loops enforce the panic.
what is the principle of classical conditioning
organisms learns to associate 2 stimuli so that the response to one becomes the response to the other as well
what is the principle of operant conditioning
organism learns to behave based on consequences, where reward enforces and punishment weakens behaviours.
what is the behavioural approach
that all behaviours, adaptive or maladaptive, are acquired by classical or operant conditioning
behavioural therapy is based on
behavioural modification is based on
what is the flaw of the principle of the behavioural approach?
that removing the effect (behaviour) treats the cause (neurosis)
what are 4 behavioural therapies?
systematic desensitization, implosion (imagined), flooding (in vivo), aversion therapies
how did Ayllon and Azrin (1968) use behavioural modification to treat schizophrenics?
tokens were used as positive reinforcers for specific goals
what is the downside of case studies?
can't generalise info from a single case
what did clark et al (1994) show?
that CBT has greater efficacy in treating panic disorders than drug/applied relaxation
what has been shown about the neural effects of psychotherapy?
very similar reduction of neural activity (in amygdala, hippocampus and temporal cortex) as SSRI drugs- shows just as affective as drug
what is the philosophical implication of studies showing psychotherapy having a neural correlate?
gives evidence for monism in the mind-body problem