Flashcards in Learning Deck (31):
what is insight learning
sudden perception of useful information that helps solve a problem
observational learning is
learning simply by viewing the behaviour of others (including fears and prejudices)
humans partake in observational learning whereas other animals do
what is insight learning a challenge to?
the behaviourists trial and error theory of learning
what is latent learning?
learning a behaviour rather than performing it
latent learning occurs faster when rewards are ____ rather than ____ - this was shown experimentally by ___
sporadic,regular, Tolman & Honzik 1930
Operant conditioning is sometimes described as
the law of effect, as rewarded behaviour tends to be repeated
operant conditions observes how behaviour can be modulated by
method of classical conditioning:
pairs US with CS to bring about CS --> CR
Pavlovs dogs are an example of ____ conditioning
what plot can you make from classical conditioning experiments?
strength of CR vs reinforced trials to measure probability, amplitude and latency
UR can be described as
innate- independent of learning
what is the opposite of conditioning and how can it be reversed?
learning in reconditioning occurs ___ which shows there is _____
faster, a trace of original learning which is built upon
how does reconditioning happen?
repairing CS with US
it is key that in learning, any change must be due to
a lasting change in behaviour which can be measured
we learn by ___ and ____
habituation is ___ efficient, as it ______ via ______
energy, narrows the range of stimuli that elicit false alarms, familiarisation
conditioning is the formation of
what are the 4 key considerations in learning?
1. temporal contiguity
2. important factors of meaningful learning
4. associating appropriate stimuli with rewards
what does temporal contiguity determine and what does it say about the time interval between S and R
the length of sensitive window, the S must be before R but not so long before that they don't appear linked
what are 2 important factors in meaningful learning?
1. flexibility in associations made
2. ability to build upon previous learning
the implication of latent learning is that learning is based on the formation of ___
Tolman referred to learning that wasn't demonsratable in terms of behaviour as ____
while reinforcement affects ___, it isn't necessary for ____ to occur, as shown by the fact that there were _____ in ____ than ______
behaviour, latent learning, fewer errors, groups where reward was introduced at the end, groups where reward was continuous
the bandura and bobo doll experiments are an example of
____learning was used in mexican ___