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Flashcards in Learning Deck (31):
1

what is insight learning

sudden perception of useful information that helps solve a problem

2

observational learning is

learning simply by viewing the behaviour of others (including fears and prejudices)

3

humans partake in observational learning whereas other animals do

vicarious learning

4

what is insight learning a challenge to?

the behaviourists trial and error theory of learning

5

what is latent learning?

learning a behaviour rather than performing it

6

latent learning occurs faster when rewards are ____ rather than ____ - this was shown experimentally by ___

sporadic,regular, Tolman & Honzik 1930

7

Operant conditioning is sometimes described as

the law of effect, as rewarded behaviour tends to be repeated

8

operant conditions observes how behaviour can be modulated by

reward

9

primary reinforcers:

food, warmth

10

secondary reinforcers:

money, grades

11

method of classical conditioning:

pairs US with CS to bring about CS --> CR

12

Pavlovs dogs are an example of ____ conditioning

classical

13

what plot can you make from classical conditioning experiments?

strength of CR vs reinforced trials to measure probability, amplitude and latency

14

UR can be described as

innate- independent of learning

15

what is the opposite of conditioning and how can it be reversed?

extinction, reconditioning

16

learning in reconditioning occurs ___ which shows there is _____

faster, a trace of original learning which is built upon

17

how does reconditioning happen?

repairing CS with US

18

it is key that in learning, any change must be due to

experience

19

learning implies

a lasting change in behaviour which can be measured

20

we learn by ___ and ____

habituation, conditioning

21

habituation is ___ efficient, as it ______ via ______

energy, narrows the range of stimuli that elicit false alarms, familiarisation

22

conditioning is the formation of

associations

23

what are the 4 key considerations in learning?

1. temporal contiguity
2. important factors of meaningful learning
3. contingency
4. associating appropriate stimuli with rewards

24

what does temporal contiguity determine and what does it say about the time interval between S and R

the length of sensitive window, the S must be before R but not so long before that they don't appear linked

25

what are 2 important factors in meaningful learning?

1. flexibility in associations made
2. ability to build upon previous learning

26

the implication of latent learning is that learning is based on the formation of ___

cognitive maps

27

Tolman referred to learning that wasn't demonsratable in terms of behaviour as ____

latent learning

28

while reinforcement affects ___, it isn't necessary for ____ to occur, as shown by the fact that there were _____ in ____ than ______

behaviour, latent learning, fewer errors, groups where reward was introduced at the end, groups where reward was continuous

29

the bandura and bobo doll experiments are an example of

observational learning

30

____learning was used in mexican ___

observational, media

31

imprinting shows there is a ____ where an organism is more ____to learning, for example _____

critical period, sensitive, maternal bonding