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Flashcards in Memory Deck (43):

there are 3 types of memory:

episodic, semantic, procedural


episodic and semantic can be described as



procedural memory can be described as

non-declarative, skills and habits (BG)


declarative memory is centered in the ___ lobe and ____, and includes ____(___) and ____(___). it can therefore be said to involve ___ info

medial temporal, diencephalon, semantic, facts, episodic, events, explicit


non-declarative memory involves _____ information, i.e. ____. it is acted on in ____ conditioning by combining info from the ____ regarding ___ ___ with ___ ____ associated with the _____

procedural, motor skills, classical, cerebellum, skeletal musculature, emotional responses, amygdala.


there are 3 sub processes of memory:

encoding( trace formation) , storage (retention in LTM), retrieval (extraction from LTM)


memory is the ability to represent past ____, mental ____ and previously acquired implicit ____

experience, events, knowledge


inability to recall on demand=

retrograde amnesia


can't make new memories=



working memory is the ability to

retain info "online" during normal cognition


the multi store model of memory is based on ______ (_____)s _____ and ____ ___ ____ studies on brain damaged patients

Atkinson& Shiffrin, 1968, empirical evidence comparing psychophysics of healthy with neuropsychological dissoc., serial position effect


chunking involves

reducing large quantities of information into smaller manageable chunks ( ex letters into words)


the serial position effect (___, ____) plotted primary effect against ____ to give _____ effect, which showed that ____

murdoch, 1962, serial position, recency, people are more likely to remember the info at the beginning and ends of lists


the basic assumpltion of psychophysics is that

perception/cognition can be deconstructed into sub-processes


the distinction between STM and LTM is seen as

depending on where the brain is damaged--> anterograde or retrograde


both types of amnesia can be treated with



retrograde amnesia is due to damage to

ventral frontal regions including uncinate fasciculus


STM involves ___ similarity and ____

acoustic, interference


LTM involves ___ similarity and ____ words

semantic, facilitation


conditioning in anterograde amnesia is done by combining ___ response to ____ with ____, which results in __________ but no memory of training. extinction occurs after ____ but ____. therefore classical conditioning shows memory is ____

eyeblink response, air puff, tone, CS-UR relationship, 2 years, can be retrieved 1/10th times, implicit


The 4 theories of forgetting are

1. Trace decay theory
2. Interference theory
3. Retrieval theory
4. Schema


short term trace decay is seen in the absence of ____, info remains briefly in _____, before being forgotten- this was shown experimentally in the ___ ____ technique (____), whose aim was to provide empirical evidence for the ___ ____ ___

rehearsal, STM, brown peterson technique, 1959, multi store model


sensory memory is ____ specific and includes ____. The Iconic memory store is up to ___ and the echoic is up to ____

modality, attention, 0.5s, 2s


___(___) Tachistoscope experiment is used to test ____ memory, and is done by ___ ____ for ____. ____ found that by accompanying the stimuli with a brief__/___/___ ___, ___ memory was improved

Sperling, 1960, sensory, flashing a stimuli, 50ms, sperling, high, med, low, tone, iconic


___ is how sensory input is represented in the memory system



verbal STM, or __ ___, is assessed using a ___ ____ _____ test

working memory, forward-backward digit span test


perceptual learning is assessed using ___, where parts of a drawing are used to test ___ between ___

priming, associations, stimuli


tasks to assess procedural memory include ___ __ (___) and ___ ____(___) -the latter was done on __ and showed he ___ although didn't _____ - therefore he had intact ___ (or ____) memory.

rotary pursuit, corkin 1968, mirror tracing, milner 1962, HM, remembered how to mirror draw, remember training, procedural, non-declarative


elizabeth loftus showed evidence for the ____ theory using cases of ____. This theory says we ___ memories to fit a ____

schema, EWT, reconstruct, schema


the schema theory says that information sampling occurs via the _____ (ie did you ____), and false post information can result in ____

misinformation effect, see a or the, false memories


the effect of false memories was shown my ____(___) who showed that the wording after a car accident affect how ___ the person though the car was going. ____ was also shown to have an effect, as telling them they had gotten sick from an ____ when a child resulted in _____

loftus & palmer 1947, fast, false suggestion, egg sandwich, long lasting behavioural changes


in ____(___) post car accident test, "smashed" resulted in ___ thinking there was ___ and "hit" made ___ believe

loftus&palmer 1947, 32%, 14%


a huge contribution to false EWT is ___ ____, where the person is recognised as ____ but don't know where from

source misattribution, familiar


HM had ____ so his _____ were removed which resulted in both ______

temporal lobe epilepsy, medial temporal lobes (although entorhinal and parahippocampal non func too because of atrophy), a and r amnesia


working memory is associated with the

prefrontal cortex


semantic memory is associated with

the infero lateral temporal lobe


procedural memory is associated with

the cerebellum, BG (putamen), and the supplementary motor cortex


loftus quote: who we are may be ____ but our memories are _____ and what we have been _____ (__)

shaped by our memories, shaped by who we are, led to believe, 2003


trace decay theory states that ____ changes occur during ____ and without ____, _____ processes occur which reverse these changes. however the problem is that ___ alone doesn't account for ___ as shown by ____ memory

functional & structural changes occur, learning, rehearsal, metabolic, time, forgetting, recalled


interference theory says that ____ interfere with eachother and that this interference can be ____/____

similar items, retroactive, proactive


retrieval failure theory says that ___may not be ____ if correct ____aren't used. method showed that recall ___ when information was ____ rather than _____

memories, recalled, retrieval cues, improved categorised, free


schema theory says that memories are a ______, which distorts if new information ____ with _____, and also is cognitively ____ as ____ occurs. implications for EWT is that we tend to ____

simplified generalized mental representation of an event based on past experience, conflicts, existing, economical, filling in, reconstruct memories to fit schema


Loftus' ____ report (___) made conviction on a single ____ not viable due to emprical evidence that memory is a ____ and is influenced by _____ guessing and ______

devlin, 1976, ewt, reconstruction, educated, suggestive wording