Flashcards in Personality Deck (42):
What is personality?
distinctive and enduring patterns in the ways an individual thinks, feels and behaves, that characterize and ay predict responses to events or situations.
personality is consistent
within the individual and over time
since behaviour is consistent and distinct from others' behaviour in similar situations,
you can distinguish between people using the theories of personality
what are the 4 heirarchical levels in the psychometric trait approach?
superfactor>trait>habitual response>specific response
what is the method, aim and result of factor analysis?
correlation patterns between traits, extract hypothetical structures from these, many equivalent results to same data
IDs small number of powerful, independent factors (uncorrelated)
IDs larger number less powerful factors (some correlation)
orthogonal and obliquely rotating data allows us to
cluster the data and hence reduce it
personality factors tend to be normally distributes, appart from
psychoticism, which also describes healthy but non norm characteristics ex. rebelliousness
Principles of Allports theory:
trait explains consistency, state explains variability (so therefore context affects), and traits can be condensed into 3 categories to describe uniqueness: cardinal, central and secondary traits. Also, traits affect response to, and selection of, situations.
Principle's of Cattell's theory:
"fundamental lexical hypothesis" linguistics rel. to individual differences, reduced traits to 16 info clusters- primary correlated factors (oblique). However 16 not replicated, plus use of intelligence is a source of critique.
Principles of Eysencks theories:
ID of basic traits, subjects were psychiatric vs military (large "control"), in questionnaires agreed or disagreed, results were 2 factor theory (and PEN theory)
Eysencks 2 factor theory:
2 overarching dimensions/factors, orthogonally rotated (so robust), introvert/extrovert/neurotic/stable. Showed to make some sense neurobiologically, ex extrovert seek excitement due to increased DA, neurotics sleep less due to 5HT & NA inbalance(?)
Eysencks PEN theory:
added a 3rd dimension, psychoticism. tests validated with criterion analysis (given to people with known differing in certain dimension). links to neurobiology.
Evaluation of eysencks theories:
more replicable than 16 pf, but P only partially replicated by baratt and kline because P is so closely linked to negative ends of A and C. Also, ethical problem of P being used to explain criminal behaviour.
Principles of Gray's theory:
Psychobiological approach. BIS(inhib)/BAS(activ.)
Anxiety inititates the system-->septohippocampal and brainstem efferents send MOAs and 5HT to frontal lobe-->punishment/non-reward/avoidance of novelty
Impulsivity activates system-->major dopinergic pathways directly related to --> reward.
evaluation of gray's BIS/BAS
1st to integrate across analytical levels, has testable predictions, carver & white (1994), links to big 5
why is the fact that the big five involves 5 OBLIQUELY rotated factors not a problem?
not a problem if 1D and replicable
what are costa and mcCraes big five?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism.
fundamental lexical hypothesis (cattells 16pf and the big 5)
if individual differences in the different factors are universal, then all languages of the world should include terms that refer to these factors.
pros of big 5
some empirical evidence supports across culture and time, fundamental lexical hypothesis
cons of big 5
1st and 2nd order characteristics not separated according to heirarchy, self report vs. peer report, several big 5 theories so difficult to conceptualise, intellectual ability arguably not a trait.
4 cons of evaluation of trait approach
1. emphasis on self/ peer report-accurate?
2. provides description, not explanation
3. population bias as volunteers W. uni students
4. behaviour also depends on context
which trait approaches take context into account?
Allports and BIS/BAS
what are the symptoms of Frontal Lobe Syndrome?(as seen in phineas gage)
personality changes such as insensitivity, moria (faux pas), apathy/abulia, restlessness, promiscuity/disinhibition, executive dysfunction (deficiency in planning due to lack of cognitive flexibility).
what change is seen in fMRIs of extroverts?
smaller volume of Wernicke's
what change is seen in fMRIs of psychotics?
smaller volume of globus pallidus, may reflect decreased response to reward/damage
assumption of twin studies is that they had similar environments, however
this doesn't mean they had same experiences as parenting in same family differs (plus ex school friends etc different)
what is the aim of twin studies?
to show the affect of genes vs environment on traits to allow for comparison
what were the results of Tellegen et al (1988)s twin study?
differing contributions of genes vs environment, plus some traits (for example constraint) are very inheritable but also very affected by environment
what 3 traits must a study possess in order to be useful and valid?
1. test-retest reliability
2. inter-rater reliability
what is test- retest reliability?
stable personality trait should yield similar scores when given to the same person at different times
what is inter-rater reliability?
different professionals should score and interpret the test in a similar way, independent of who who administers the test
what is validity?
test should actually measure the variable it intends/claims to.
what is the questionnaire that measures the big five?
Describe Eysencks personality questionnaire
measured E,P and N and accounted for tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner
Rorschachs inkblots are an example of
projective tests (problem of being trained what to say)
4 examples of application of trait theories:
1. career advice
2. research IDing those at risk of health problems
3.choice of psychological treatment
is Gray's BIS/BAS theory strictly a trait theory?