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Flashcards in Obedience Deck (31):

obedience is the carrying out of ____given by a person invested with____(___)

orders, authority, Avermaet


classical studies of obedience include

milgram, moscovici's minority experiment, stanford prison (zimbardo), solomonasch conformity


milgrams participants were given awareness by

having a 45v shock, thought they themselves could have been learner


milgrams partic impression role authority by

at uni campus, exp. wore white coat, stern prompts on hesitation


the predicted results of milgrams was ___ by students and ___ by psychologists- actual was ____

1.2%, 0.125%, 62.5%


the underestimation of obedience was explained by the _____(___), which is that people tend to place ________ on the ______ of the ____, and ______ situational influences (ie assign different characteristic to others than to ourselves)

fundamental attribution error, ross 1977, too much emphasis, personal disposition, teacher, overlook (not actually "fundamental as differs between cultures but still powerful)


in soloman aschs conformity experiment (___), ___% gave the wrong answer when everyone else did, whereas in contraol less than ___ gave wrong answer

1951, 30%,1%


milgram: average shock was ___, varied according to conditions such as

368v, male vs. female, proximity to learner/experimenter, location, confederates


a flaw of milgrams is they never proved they understood that

shock was fatal, and internal conflict may link to personality?


why obey?

personal interest, adaptation to norms, avoid responsibility, respect, punishment&reward, do the right thing


zimbardos experiment (___) can be said to not strictly be obedience as ____were given but not ____

1973, roles, orders


ethical attempts to recreate milgrams have been tried (eventhough ____) , including; 1_________ and 2_________

1yr follow up said 84%glad to take part, immersive virtual environments, partial replication (burger)


how are burgers replications deemed more ethical?

2 step screening process, right to withdraw, 15v rather than 45v for own, immediate debriefing, clinical psych to monitor stress ---> findings consistent with milgram, and 150v max as 79% reaching this point would go all the way anyway


challenges for milgram:

manipulated procedure(tinkered following pilot) and obscured variations(with range obedience 0-92.5%)- therefore point was to see to what extent people obey in varying situations


level of obedience decreased when

reconciling competing demands were present


___(__) argues milgram demonstrated power of expert authority rather than ___authority, but later analysis showed

morelli, 1983, legitimate, experimenter both legitimate and expert.


milgrams results may not be evidence for agentic state since

levels obedience depend on exposure to different voices with different constitution


why disobey?

responsibility, see others rebel, question motives of orders, time to think, reaction to freedom restrictions, high levels moral reasoning


agentic state is that a "man feels __ to the ___ directing him but feels no ___ for the ____ of the action the ____ prescribes"

responsible, authority, responsibility, content, authority (ie shift to experimental state)


agentic state is influences by ___(_)

banality of evil, arendt


milgrams second theory for obedience is ___forces/____ mechanisms, such as

binding, strain resolving, legitimate auth., social commitment, task legitimacy, task nature ex incremental


there were ___replications of milgram from ___-___, showing no relationship between obedience and year or whether in naturalistic environments

14, 1963, 1985


___(___) nurse studies involved 2xdose of drug not cleared for use, results were

hofling et al (1966), 21 of 22 obeyed


___(__) replicated hoflings nurse studies but with ___ and the result of this was _____

rank &jacobsen (1975), 2 of 18 complied


___(__) investigated ____ by stopping ps in street, results were that more obeyed guard than civ, it was ___specific, and ____ increased compliance by ____

bickman, (1974), influence of authority, situation, explanation, 36%


___(___) replicated bushman(1974) experiment to investigate ___/___ authority, results were that __authority had ___ obedience whereas ___ had ___ (which was very close to ___ for no authority)

bushman, 1984, status, role, role, 82%, status, 50%, 45%


milgram critical decision points were when learner voiced

clear objections (150v and 315v)


request showed compliance, ___ didn't



__(__)s social ID based explanation is that part of an individuals ____ which derives from knowledge of ____ of a social group together with ___attached to the group results in social categorisations and ____theory

Tajefel, 1978, self concept, membership, emotional significance, self-categorisation theory


social categorisations are the need for ___ identity and leads to ___comparisons that enhance the distinctive __ingroup and ___outgroup

positive, social, positive, negative


the difference between social is and agentic state is that social id is ___ but AS is -___

conscious active endeavour, passive