Flashcards in Accessory Organs To Digestion Deck (46):
What is the covering of the liver?
What are the 6 main functions of the liver?
Produces plasma proteins
Degrades drugs and toxins
Stores and converts several vitamins and iron
What are the major functions of bile?
Aids in lipid digestion
Disposal of waste products
What are the two sources of blood supply to the liver?
Hepatic portal vein
What are the parenchyma of the liver?
Organized plates of hepatocytes
What is the connective tissue stroma of the liver ?
Continuations of the fibrous capsule in the liver itself
What are the sinusoidal capillaries?
Vascular channels between plates of hepatocytes than allow leakage through them to the hepatocytes into the space of disse
What are the spaces of disse in the liver?
The space between the sinusoidal endothelium and the hepatocytes where plasma leaks into and hepatocyte cilia are found
What does the classic model of looking at the liver center around?
Central vein in the middle
Corners are portal triads
What does the portal model of the liver designed to emphasize?
Exocrine function (bile)
What is the portal model centered around physically?
Portal triad in the middle
Central vein on the corners
What is the liver acinus model good at showing?
Correlation between liver pathology, blood perfusion, and metabolic activity
Where is the short axis in the liver acinus model?
Between two triads
Where is the long axis in the liver acinus model?
Between two terminal hepatic venules
Which zone cells are the first to show effects of reduced perfusion?
Which zone cells are the first to show effects of bile obstruction?
Where is the site of exchange in the liver?
Space of disse
In a fetus, what is also found in the space of disse?
Islands of blood forming cells
What cells are found in the space of disse in adults?
Ito cells (hepatic stellate cells)
What do Ito cells do?
Store vitamin a
What happens to Ito cells in pathological conditions?
Turn into myofibroblasts
Plasma that remains in the space of disse drains where?
Into the space of mall to
Lymphatic capillaries to
What are 5 prominent organelles of hepatocytes?
What do all the bile canaliculi come together and form?
Canal of hering
What cells are speculated to be found in the canal of hering?
Hepatic stem cells
What mucosa is the gallbladder?
Simple columnar epithelium
What organelle are the epithelial cells of the gallbladder rich in?
What is the main function of the gallbladder?
Store bile, concentrate it, and release it
What controls the contraction of the gallbladder?
Where is the endocrine portion of the pancreas found?
Islets of langerhans
What do acinar cells do in the pancreas?
Release and store pro enzymes
What are the enzymes released by the acinar cells?
Pro enzymes are made active in the small intestine by what two enzymes?
Enterokinase makes trypsin
Trypsin activates others
What two hormones control pancreatic secretion and are produced in the enteroendocrine cells?
How does gastric acid interact with secretin?
Stimulus for it
It stimulates intercalated duct cells to release bicarbonate to neutralize acid
How does CCK up regulate pancreatic secretion?
It is stimulated by lipids and gastric acid
It causes acinar cells to produce pro enzymes
What are the three major cell types in islets of langerhans ?
What do beta cells secrete?
What do alpha cells secrete?
What do delta cells secrete?
What are the three minor cells of the pancreas?
PP cells (f cells)
What do pp cells secrete?
What do D-1 cells secrete?
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
What do ec cells secrete?
What is the major function of the endocrine pancreas?
Regulate blood glucose levels!