Accessory Organs To Digestion Flashcards Preview

Cell Bio Block 3 > Accessory Organs To Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Accessory Organs To Digestion Deck (46):
0

What is the covering of the liver?

Glissons capsule

1

What are the 6 main functions of the liver?

Bile production
Metabolic pathways
Produces plasma proteins
Degrades drugs and toxins
Stores and converts several vitamins and iron
Endocrine

2

What are the major functions of bile?

Aids in lipid digestion
Disposal of waste products

3

What are the two sources of blood supply to the liver?

Hepatic artery
Hepatic portal vein

4

What are the parenchyma of the liver?

Organized plates of hepatocytes

5

What is the connective tissue stroma of the liver ?

Continuations of the fibrous capsule in the liver itself

6

What are the sinusoidal capillaries?

Vascular channels between plates of hepatocytes than allow leakage through them to the hepatocytes into the space of disse

7

What are the spaces of disse in the liver?

The space between the sinusoidal endothelium and the hepatocytes where plasma leaks into and hepatocyte cilia are found

8

What does the classic model of looking at the liver center around?

Central vein in the middle
Corners are portal triads

9

What does the portal model of the liver designed to emphasize?

Exocrine function (bile)

10

What is the portal model centered around physically?

Portal triad in the middle
Central vein on the corners

11

What is the liver acinus model good at showing?

Correlation between liver pathology, blood perfusion, and metabolic activity

12

Where is the short axis in the liver acinus model?

Between two triads

13

Where is the long axis in the liver acinus model?

Between two terminal hepatic venules

14

Which zone cells are the first to show effects of reduced perfusion?

Zone 3

15

Which zone cells are the first to show effects of bile obstruction?

Zone 1

16

Where is the site of exchange in the liver?

Space of disse

17

In a fetus, what is also found in the space of disse?

Islands of blood forming cells

18

What cells are found in the space of disse in adults?

Ito cells (hepatic stellate cells)

19

What do Ito cells do?

Store vitamin a

20

What happens to Ito cells in pathological conditions?

Turn into myofibroblasts

21

Plasma that remains in the space of disse drains where?

Into the space of mall to
Lymphatic capillaries to
thoracic duct

22

What are 5 prominent organelles of hepatocytes?

Peroxisomes
RER
Lysosomes
Golgi
SER

23

What do all the bile canaliculi come together and form?

Canal of hering

24

What cells are speculated to be found in the canal of hering?

Hepatic stem cells

25

What mucosa is the gallbladder?

Simple columnar epithelium

26

What organelle are the epithelial cells of the gallbladder rich in?

Mitochondria

27

What is the main function of the gallbladder?

Store bile, concentrate it, and release it

28

What controls the contraction of the gallbladder?

CCK

29

Where is the endocrine portion of the pancreas found?

Islets of langerhans

30

What do acinar cells do in the pancreas?

Release and store pro enzymes

31

What are the enzymes released by the acinar cells?

Proteolytic enzymes
Amylase
Lipases
Nucleates

32

Pro enzymes are made active in the small intestine by what two enzymes?

Enterokinase makes trypsin
Trypsin activates others

33

What two hormones control pancreatic secretion and are produced in the enteroendocrine cells?

CCK
Secretin

34

How does gastric acid interact with secretin?

Stimulus for it
It stimulates intercalated duct cells to release bicarbonate to neutralize acid

35

How does CCK up regulate pancreatic secretion?

It is stimulated by lipids and gastric acid
It causes acinar cells to produce pro enzymes

36

What are the three major cell types in islets of langerhans ?

Alpha
Beta
Delta

37

What do beta cells secrete?

Insulin

38

What do alpha cells secrete?

Glucagon

39

What do delta cells secrete?

Somatostatin

40

What are the three minor cells of the pancreas?

PP cells (f cells)
D-1cells
EC cells

41

What do pp cells secrete?

Pancreatic polypeptide

42

What do D-1 cells secrete?

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

43

What do ec cells secrete?

Secretin
Motilin
Substance p

44

What is the major function of the endocrine pancreas?

Regulate blood glucose levels!

45

What is the function of somatostatin ?

Inhibits insulin and glucagon