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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (33):
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What are the parts of the conducting systems of the resp. System?

Nasal cavity
Nasopharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchioles

1

What are the parts of the respiratory portion of the of the respiratory system?

Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveoli

2

What are the two main functions of the conducting portion of the respiratory system?

Condition air
Conduct air

3

What is the epithelium of the conducting portion?

Ciliated Pseudostratified columnar epith. W/ goblet cells

4

What are brush cells?

Columnar cells with micro villi + nerve endings for sensory function

6

What are basal cells?

Small cells that do not go up to the surface
Reserve cells that can differentiate into cell types

7

what is a small granular cell?

has dense core granules and is a neuroendocrine

8

what is the epithelium of the vestibule of the nose?

(transitions) nonkeratinized to respiratory epithelium

9

what are swell bodies?

venous plexuses on the mucosa of the conchae in the nasal fossae that swell alternatively to block airflow on that side and prevent drying out

10

what is the epithelium of the olfactory mucosa?

pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium

11

what secretes a fluid that covers the olfactory surface?

Bowman's glands

12

what are olfactory cells

bipolar neurons that are chemoreceptors

13

what does the cartilage of the larynx do?

helps maintain an open airway
aids in producing sounds

14

what is the larger cartilage in the larynx made of?

hyaline

15

what is the smaller cartilage in the larynx made of?

elastic

16

what part of the larynx is lined w/ stratified squamous epithelium instead of respiratory epithelium?

Lingual + apical epiglottis
True vocal cords

17

what is the epithelium of the bronchi?

respiratory epithelium

18

what makes up the wall of the bronchi?

plates of cartilage
elastic fibers
smooth muscle (beneath epithelium)

19

what largely makes up the walls of bronchioles?

smooth muscle and elastic fibers
scattered goblet cells

20

what are the 2 types of epithelium in the bronchioles?

ciliated pseudostratified columnar
simple ciliated columnar/ cuboidal

21

where are Clara cells found?

in the bronchiolar epithelium

22

what do Clara cells do?

secrete surface acting substances + proteins to prevent oxidative damage

23

what are neuroepithelial bodies?

groups of cells w/ secretory granules that receive nerve endings

24

what do neuroepithelial bodies do?

chemoreceptors that react to gas composition changes
repair/renew epithelial cells after injury

25

what is the structural difference between bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles?

respir. bronchioles walls have saclike alveoli

26

what does the epithelium transition to in the respiratory bronchioles?

nonciliated cuboidal epithelium

27

what is an alveolar duct?

when the wall of the respiratory bronchiole has nothing on it but alveoli

28

what is the support for the alveolar duct and the alveoli?

reticular fibers
elastic fibers

29

where does gas exchange happen?

alveoli

30

what is the interalveolar septum?

a thin septum of 2 epithelial layers between 2 neighboring alveoli

31

what 3 things make up the blood-air barrier?

alveolar lining cell
fused basal lamina
endothelial cell

32

what are general characteristics of Type 1 alveolar cells?

97% of surface area
squamous lining cells
organelles are around the nucleus

33

what is special about type 2 alveolar cells?

lamellar bodies produce surfactant (= foamy cytoplasm)