Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (33):
What are the parts of the conducting systems of the resp. System?
What are the parts of the respiratory portion of the of the respiratory system?
What are the two main functions of the conducting portion of the respiratory system?
What is the epithelium of the conducting portion?
Ciliated Pseudostratified columnar epith. W/ goblet cells
What are brush cells?
Columnar cells with micro villi + nerve endings for sensory function
What are basal cells?
Small cells that do not go up to the surface
Reserve cells that can differentiate into cell types
what is a small granular cell?
has dense core granules and is a neuroendocrine
what is the epithelium of the vestibule of the nose?
(transitions) nonkeratinized to respiratory epithelium
what are swell bodies?
venous plexuses on the mucosa of the conchae in the nasal fossae that swell alternatively to block airflow on that side and prevent drying out
what is the epithelium of the olfactory mucosa?
pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium
what secretes a fluid that covers the olfactory surface?
what are olfactory cells
bipolar neurons that are chemoreceptors
what does the cartilage of the larynx do?
helps maintain an open airway
aids in producing sounds
what is the larger cartilage in the larynx made of?
what is the smaller cartilage in the larynx made of?
what part of the larynx is lined w/ stratified squamous epithelium instead of respiratory epithelium?
Lingual + apical epiglottis
True vocal cords
what is the epithelium of the bronchi?
what makes up the wall of the bronchi?
plates of cartilage
smooth muscle (beneath epithelium)
what largely makes up the walls of bronchioles?
smooth muscle and elastic fibers
scattered goblet cells
what are the 2 types of epithelium in the bronchioles?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar
simple ciliated columnar/ cuboidal
where are Clara cells found?
in the bronchiolar epithelium
what do Clara cells do?
secrete surface acting substances + proteins to prevent oxidative damage
what are neuroepithelial bodies?
groups of cells w/ secretory granules that receive nerve endings
what do neuroepithelial bodies do?
chemoreceptors that react to gas composition changes
repair/renew epithelial cells after injury
what is the structural difference between bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles?
respir. bronchioles walls have saclike alveoli
what does the epithelium transition to in the respiratory bronchioles?
nonciliated cuboidal epithelium
what is an alveolar duct?
when the wall of the respiratory bronchiole has nothing on it but alveoli
what is the support for the alveolar duct and the alveoli?
where does gas exchange happen?
what is the interalveolar septum?
a thin septum of 2 epithelial layers between 2 neighboring alveoli
what 3 things make up the blood-air barrier?
alveolar lining cell
fused basal lamina
what are general characteristics of Type 1 alveolar cells?
97% of surface area
squamous lining cells
organelles are around the nucleus