Flashcards in Digestive System- esophagus and GI Deck (64):
what are the 4 layers of the alimentary canal?
what are the 3 layers of the mucosa of the alimentary canal?
what are the 4 important functions of the mucosa?
what antibodies does the mucosa secrete?
what are the types of lymphatic tissue of the lamina propria of the mucosa?
GALT (Diffuse lymphatic + lymphatic nodules)
Eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages
what is the boundary between the mucosa and the submucosa?
what makes up the submucosa of the alimentary canal?
dense irregular connective tissue
what is the extensive nerve plexus of the submucosa of the alimentary canal?
submucosal or Meissner's plexus
what glands are occasionally found in the submucosa of the alimentary canal?
what plexus is found in the muscularis layer of the alimentary canal?
Auerbach's plexus / myenteric
what movement of the muscularis moves things longitudinally only?
what movement of the muscularis of the alimentary canal moves things proximally and distally?
what are the sphincters formed by the muscularis?
internal anal sphincter
what is the simple squamous epithelium of the serosa of the alimentary canal called?
what is the serosa of the alimentary canal equivalent to in the body?
what kind of epithelium makes up the pharynx near the esophagus?
nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
what kind of epithelium makes up the pharynx near the nasal cavity?
pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells
what is the muscularis in the esophagus at upper 1/3, middle 1/3, and lower 1/3?
middle- skeletal and smooth
lower- only smooth
what is the mucosa of the esophagus?
stratified squamous epithelium
what type of mucus is secreted from submucosal glands in the esophagus?
what do cardiac glands of the lower esophagus secrete?
what is the transition of epithelium in the esophagogastric junction?
from stratified squamous epithelium to columnar
how are gastric glands formed?
gastric mucosa invaginates to form gastric pits
what type of secretion do pyloric glands secrete?
viscous; probably mucous in nature
what type of cells are found w/ pyloric glands?
what do chief cells secrete?
pepsinogen and weak lipase
pepsinogen is converted to what?
where are parietal cells found?
in the neck of fundic glands
what is important about the membranes of the tubulovesicular system of parietal cells?
serve as a reservoir of active proton pumps
what are the 3 receptors that iniate the release of HCl from the parietal cells?
what factor is needed to combine w/ Vitamin B12 so it can be absorbed in the ileum?
the absence of what lead to pernicious anemia?
what is Vitamin B12 needed for?
RBC production and maintenance of CNS
What peptide hormones are released by enteroendocrine cells from the fundus to the colon?
how long is the average lifespan of a mucosal cell?
3 to 5 days
What is the main site for digestion and absorption?
Where can enzymes of the small intestine be found?
in the glycocalyx of the microvilli of the intestinal abosorptive cells (enterocytes)
what are the 2 enzymes that mainly aid with lipid digestion?
pancreatic lipase and bile
where is most of the lipid digestion in humans anatomically?
duodenum and ileum
what gives actin in the microvilli its rigidity?
what stabilizes the terminal web of the microvilli?
The presence of what in the terminal web determines that it can contract?
Myosin II and tropmyosin
what does the terminal web of the enterocytes do to increase absorption?
it contracts to increase surface area to allow more absorption to occur
what are the plicae circulares on the mucosal surface of the small intestine also known as?
valves of kerckring
what are intestinal villi and what to do they do?
they are finger-like projections that cover the intestinal mucosa and function to increase SA
what kind of epithelium do intestinal villi have?
simple columnar epithelilum w/ goblet cells interspersed
what is at the middle of intestinal villi?
what is another name for intestinal glands?
crypts of Lieberkuhn
where are brunner's glands found?
submucosa of the duodenum
what do brunner's glands secrete?
alkaline secretions to neutralize acidic chyme
which staining procedure will give a positive for glycoproteins present in mucus and the brush border of intestines?
what are the 5 mechanisms present in the alimentary canal for defense?
Acidity of gastric juices
what is the big role of paneth cells?
regulating the normal flora of small intestine
what are the secretory granules that are present in paneth cells?
arginine rich protein
What is the only AB that can be selectively passed across the mucosa tot he lumen?
what does IgA bind?
what is the pathology of crohn's disease?
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages produces cytokines that cause damage to the intestinal mucosa
what are the principal functions of the large intestine?
Reabsorption of water/ electrolytes
Elimination of undigested food/ waste
what is the mucosa of the large intestine consist of?
what does the pectinate line mark?
This line marks the junction b/w endodermal and ectodermal derivatives
what epithelium is in the colorectal zone?
simple columnar epithelium
what epithelium is in the anal transition zone?
simple columnar to stratified columnar to stratified squamous
what epithelium is in the squamous zone?