Flashcards in Integumentary system Deck (41):
what are the 2 layers of the integumentary system?
what type of epithelium is the epidermis and what is it derived from
stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized)
what type of epithelium is the dermis and what is it derived from?
dense connective tissue
what is the layer beneath the dermis?
what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
how are cells of the stratum basale connected to the basal lamina?
how are the cells of the stratum basale connected to each other?
what do the cells of the stratum basale contain?
what special process happens in the stratum basale because of the abundant o2 and nutrients?
what special feature do the cells in the stratum spinosum have?
how are the spines connected to adjacent cells?
what are the thickening of the desmosomes in the stratum spinosum called?
nodes of Bizzozero
what granules are in the cells of the stratum granulosum?
what proteins/compounds are in the keratohyalin granules?
cysteine and histadine-rich proteins
what are cells of the stratum corneum filled w/?
what type of collagen makes up the papillary layer of the dermis?
type 1 and 3
what are dermal papillae?
protrusions into the epidermis= fingerprints
what type of collagen/fibers make up the reticular layer of the dermis?
type 1 collagen + elastic fibers
what do the type 1 collagen and elastic fibers of the reticular layer of the dermis form in the skin?
what does excessive stretching of the reticular layer of the dermis cause?
where are two examples of smooth muscle in the hypodermis?
arrector pili muscle (cause goose bumps around hair)
dartos muscle in scrotum
what is the layer of adipose tissue of the hypodermis called?
what is the vestigual layer of striated muscle deep to the subcutaneous fascia in the hypodermis?
what 3 things do keratinocytes of the epidermis synthesize?
what are melanocytes derived from?
neural crest cells
What is an epidermal-melanin unit?
Melanocyte+ a # of keratinocytes
what is the most significant factor in skin color?
what enzyme is critical to produce melanin?
what are the most common characteristics in Waardenburg syndrome?
Patch of white hair and skin
Heterochromia irides (eyes of different colors)
what causes Waardenburg syndrome?
faulty proliferation/migration of neural crest cells
what are 3 key features of Langerhans cell?
Part of the mononuclear phagocytic system
Initiates cutaneous hypersensitivity
what is Merkel’s corpuscle
Merkel’s corpuscle= neuron + Merkel cell
what are Pacinian corpuscles
Deep pressure receptors
what are Meissner’s corpuscles
Touch receptors (dermal papillae)
what are Ruffini corpuscles
Mechanical displacement of collagen fibers
How is the Sebaceous gland connected to the hair?
by the pilosebaceous duct
what is the type of secretion that is used to secrete sebum?
what are eccrine sweat glands also called?
how is the excretory product discharged from apocrine sweat glands?
what are the parts of the nail?
Lunula (white half moon)
Hyponychium (under the nail)