Acid Base Disorders CIS Flashcards Preview

RENAL II Exam 3 > Acid Base Disorders CIS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acid Base Disorders CIS Deck (28):
1

ventilation

gas gets to alveoli

2

minute ventilation

RR x TV

3

henderson hasselbach

pH = 6.1 + log(HCO3) / 0.03 x pCO2

4

primary acid base disorder

pathologic process

5

secondary acid base disorder

normal physiologic compensation to primary disorder

6

high anion gap metabolic acidosis

look at MUDPILES causes

7

normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

look at extra-renal loss (diarrhea)
-or renal loss (RTA)

8

causes of respiratory acidosis

hypoventilation
-drugs decreased resp drive
-decreased tidal volume anatomically

9

anion gap

Na - HCO3 - Cl

normal = 10

10

MUDPILES

methanol
uremia (ESRD)
diabetic ketoacidosis
paraldehyde
infection, iron, isoniazide
lactic acidosis
ethylene glycol, alcohol
salicylates, starvation

11

uremic acidosis

severe renal function decrease

12

lactic acidosis

metformin
HIV meds
isoniazide
liver failure
seizures
sepsis
ischemia

13

diabetic ketoacidosis

more often DM I
-lipolysis - fatty acide to liver - ketones - acidosis

14

osmolar gap

2xNa + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8

normal less than 10

15

alcoholic ketoacidosis osmolar gap**

OG = ethanol /4.6

if not, look other alcohols
-ethylene glycol, methanol

16

tinnitus

ear ringing
-salicylate poisoning

17

causes of normal AG metabolic acidosis

diarrhea
decreased HCO3 reabsorption
increased anion intake
large NaCl (expansion acidosis)

18

contraction

alkalosis

19

expansion

acidosis

20

RTA type I

distal
-decreased H secretion
-alkaline urine**
-risk of stone formation
-hypokalemia

21

RTA type II

proximal
-defect bicarb reabsorption prox tub
-elevated urine bicarb
-low urine pH**
-hypokalemia

22

RTA type IV

distal hyperkalemic
-chronic renal failure
-insufficient aldosterone production or resistance
-hyperkalemia**

23

urinary anion gap

Na + K - Cl

negative - extrarenal loss (high NH4)
positive - renal loss (low NH4)

24

metabolic alkalosis

vomiting, NG suction
contraction alkalosis - dehydration
hypokalemia
correction for chronic resp acidosis

25

signs of metabolic adidosis

kussmaul respiration
N/V
arrhythmia
neuro effects

26

carpopedal spasm

metabolic alkalosis
-due to secondary hypocalcemia

27

body never overcompensates

pH gives you primary

28

acid base steps

1 - acidosis / alkalosis
2 - metabolic / respiratory
3 - compensated / uncompensated
4 - AG for metabolic
5 - if AG, calculate delta-delta (mixed)
6 - metabolic, look at pCO2 vs. bicarb - additional resp
7 - look at clinical picture