Flashcards in ACMS CERTIFICATION REVIEW Deck (59)
What is regional or topographic anatomy?
organized in regions, parts or divisions ( e.g hands, mouth)
What is systemic anatomy?
Organized according to organ systems ( e.g nervous system, repiratory system )
What is Biomechanics?
The principles of physics related to the energy and force as they apply to the human body.
What is Proximal?
Nearest to the body center, joint center or reference point.
What is Distal?
Away from the body center, joint center or reference point.
What is Superior (cranial)?
Above, towards the head
What is Inferior (caudal)?
Lower than, towards the feet.
What is Anterior (ventral)?
Towards the front
What is Posterior (dorsal)?
Towards the back
What is Medial?
Closer to the midline
What is lateral?
Away from the midline
How many planes the body has?
3 cardinal planes, sagittal, frontal and transverse (horizontal).
What is the sagittal plane?
Makes a division into right and left portions
What is the frontal plane?
Makes a division into anetrior and posterior portions
What is the transverse plane or (horizontal plane)?
Make a division into the superior and inferior portions
How many axes the body has?
3 Mediolateral, Anteroposterior and longitudinal axis
What is the Mediolateral axis?
Lies perpendicular to the sagittal plane
What is the Anteroposterior axis?
Lies perpendicular to the frontal plane
What is the Longitudinal axis?
Lies perpendicular to the transverse plane
What is Flexion?
Movement that decreases the joint angle. It occurs in the sagittal plane around the mediolateral axis
What is Extentsion?
Movement opposite of flexion, increases the joint angle . It occurs in the sagittal plane around the mediolateral axis.
What is Adduction?
Movement towards the midline of the body in a frontal plane around an anteroposterior axis.
What is Abduction?
Movement away from the midline of the body in a frontal plane around the anteroposterior axis
What is Rotation?
Movement around a longitduinal axis and in the transverse plane, either towards the midline (internal) or away from the midline (external)
What is Circumduction?
A combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. The segment moving in circumduction describes a cone.
What is Pronation?
A rotational movement at the radioulnar joint in a transverse plane about a longitudinal axis that results in the palm facing downward.
What is Supination?
A rotational movement at the radioulnar joint in a transverse plane about a longitudinal axis that results in the palm facing upward.
What is Plantarflexion?
Extension at the ankle joint.
What is Dorsiflexion?
Flexion at the ankle joint
What is Eversion?
Moving the sole of the foot away from the midline (outward)
What is Inversion?
Moving the sole of the foot towards the midline (inward)
What is the Axial Skeleton?
It contains the bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum.
Of the 29 bones of the skull, which one is the most significant in terms of exercise testing?
The Mandible, it may serve as an orienting landmark for palpating the carotid artery to assess pulse
What acts as the main axial support for the body?
The vertebral column or the spine
How many vertebrae in the spine?
33, 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused into one bone sacrum) and 4 coccygeal (fused into one bone coccyx.
What are the intervertebral disk composed off?
What is the outer fibrocartilaginous portion of the disk called?
What is the inner gelatinous portion?
What is the purpose of the disks?
Unite the vertebral bodies and serve to absorb shock and bear weight
How many curvatures does the adult vertebral column has?
4 in the sagittal plane
The curves in the sacral and thoracic regions are defined as?
Kyphosis, because the convexity of the curve is posteriorly directed.
Why are the sacral and thoracic curves considered primary?
Because they retain the same directional curvature as the spine in the fetus
The curves in the cervical and lumbar regions are defined as?
Lordosis, because the convexity of the curve is anteriorly directed.
Why are the cervical and lumbar curves considered secondary?
Because they develop after birth as the infant progresses in weight bearing
What are the most common abnormal curves found in the sagittal plane?
Hyperkyhosis (exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature) and Hyperlordosis (exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature)
What are the most common abnormal curves found in the frontal plane?
Scoliosis (lateral deviation in the frontal plane)
How many ribs the human body has?
12 pairs and 7 are considered true ribs. The costal cartilage articulates with the sternum
The spaces between ribs is called?
Where are the ECG electrodes placed?
Fourth and Fifth intercostal spaces
Where is the sternum located?
In the middle of the chest
What are the parts of the sternum?
3 parts, the manubrium (superior), the body (middle), xiphoid (inferior)
What is the sternal angle?
A slightly raised surface landmark where the manubrium meets the body of the sternum
Palpation of the xiphoid process is necessary for what?
How do you determine proper paddle placement in defibrillator?
By palpating the manubrium
What is the Appendicular Skeleton?
It includes the bones of the arms, legs and pectoral and pelvic girdles. Functions to attach the limbs to the trunk
What are the two important landmarks of the scapula?
The inferior angle (used for skinfold site location) and the acromion process (used for shoulder breadth measurement)
The humerus articulates where?
Proximally with the glenoid fossa of the scapula and distally with the ulna and radius.
What are the most easily palpable aspects of the humerus?
The medial and lateral epicondyles (used for elbow width measurement in estimating frame size)