Flashcards in Acute Inflammation Deck (40):
What are the three purposes of inflammation?
To contain, neutralize and remove
What are the two main lines of defense?
Natural epithelial barriers
What are the natural epithelial barriers?
What are the non-specific cells which cause inflammation
Mast cells, dendritic cells and macrophages
What does it mean when there is a "triple response of lewis"?
Mast cells releasing histamine
Red line, flare, wheal
Which immunoglobulin binds to mast cells?
What is the specific immunity types in regards to inflammation?
Humeral and cellular immunity
What is the colloquial term for urticaria?
What can be seen in the cells of someone who has urticaria?
If pus develops in an area (like a toe) with red streaks, the skin is sloughing off and ulceration what bacteria could cause this?
What is calor and what causes it?
Heat from vasodilatation
What is rubor and what causes it?
Redness from vasodilatation
What is tumor and what causes it?
Swelling from vascular permeability
What is dolor and what causes it?
Pain from mediator release/PMNs
What is functio laesa and what causes it?
Loss of function because you lost function
What are the major components of acute inflammation?
Chemical mediators of inflammation
What is transient vasoconstriction?
The first action that happens after an injury which only lasts a few seconds
Following vasoconstriction what happens in an injury?
Vasodilation of precapillary arterioles to inc blood flow
Blood stasis occurs after vasodilation. Then the permeability of the venules _____.
Looking at a new injury what pattern of visual cues would you see?
Pale to red to edema
What is edema?
Increase in fluid
Look for pitting vs no pitting
What is exudation?
And increase in cell number
Look for the amount of cells or if there is pus
In vascular permeability how does the protein exit a vessel?
By the decrease of intravascular osmotic pressure or the increase of intravascular hydrostatic pressure
When would endothelial gaps be seen in cell junctions?
Immediate transient response
Histamine, bradykinin, leukotrienes, substance P
What causes a prolonged leakage of inflammatory products?
ex. sunburn, x-rays, toxins
What is transcytosis?
Various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell via vesicles
What is angiogenesis?
Process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels
What are the characteristics of transudate?
Normal vascular permeability
Specific gravity < 1.02
What are the characteristics of exudate?
Increased vascular permeability
High protein and cell debris
Specific gravity > 1.02
What would you call exudate in the lungs?
If a pt has pain over the right lower quadrant with rebound tenderness, what could it be?
What mediators regulate pain?
Prostaglandin and bradykinin
What chemical mediators participate in phagocytosis?
Complement C3b and IgG
Which chemical mediators will show erythemia?
Histamine and serotonin
What chemical mediators will cause the experience of a fever?
Interleukin-1 and necrosis factors (tissue destruction)
When leukocytic infiltrate is observed, what mediators would have appeared?
Leukotriene and HPETE
After a prolonged period of time after an injury and suturing you may see a nodule at the incision site. Which cell would appear for this type of inflammatory response?
What inflammatory cells participant in clearance?
What types of injury could cause a pulmonary thromboembolism?
Swollen leg below the knee, pain with motion, tenderness and strong aterial pulses