Elimination and Distribution Flashcards Preview

CMBM exam 4 > Elimination and Distribution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Elimination and Distribution Deck (25):
1

Which drug penetrates the prostate gland and is effective in bacterial prostatitis?

Ciprofloxacin

2

Which drug is a non-sedating antihistamine because it cannot enter the brain?

Fexofenadine [Allegra]

3

Which drug is transported into the proximal tubules and is rapidly excreted by the kidneys?

Penicillin

4

What type of drugs are distributed to alveolar spaces and eliminated by lungs?

Inhalation anesthetics

5

What drug is a treatment for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women that is transported by the liver into the intestines where it is reabsorbed (enterohepatic recirculation)?

Raloxifene [Evista]

6

What are the determinants of drug distribution?

Organ blood flow
Barrier to drug diffusion
Adipose tissue
Tissue binding protein
Plasma binding protein
Drug transport
Ion tapping

7

If an organ has higher blood flow then they will receive _____ of the drug per unit time and will experience ____.

Larger amounts, larger initial effects

8

Even though these organ will have a lot of drug the high concentration will not last long because;

They will diminish as the drug is redistributed to sites with less blood flow

9

Which drugs are sedative/hypnotics that will produce initial, short, profound CNS effects after IV admin?

Benzodiaepines
Diazepam [Valium]

10

While many endothelial cells have pores for rapid diffusion, some have tight junctions. How must a drug travel in a cell with tight junctions vs one without?

Transcellularly through tight (across)
Paracellularly in endo (around)

11

Which types of drug are the only kind which can rapidly diffuse across tight junctions?

Lipophilic drugs

12

How is the blood brain barrier a special case in drug distribution

Capillaries have tight junctions and are wrapped in capillary glial cells
Endothelial cells have P-glycoprotein that pumps drugs out

13

In what case would the normal BBB restriction of hydrophilic drugs be broken?

Ischemia and inflammation

14

If a drug is lipophilic and distributes into adipose, what must have this to achieve its desired effect.

Larger initial bolus

15

To bind a drug to tissue a _____ is needed to achieve the desired effect.

Larger initial bolus

16

Which drugs highly bind to plasma proteins like albumin?

Acid drugs

17

Which drugs highly bind to plasma proteins like alpha1-acid glycoprotrin?

Basic drugs

18

When a drug binds to plasma proteins you need ____ because its more difficult for the drug to leave the vascular compartment.

More

19

If a highly plasma-protein bound drug is displaced by another drug what might happen?

May lead to a drug-drug interaction due to rapid availability of unbound or free drug

20

What is an example of a drug-drug interaction due to displacement?

Unconjugated bilirubin from albumin
May cause precipitate bilirubin causing encephalopathy in newborns

21

Transportation mechanism may ____ or ____ the distribution of drugs to certain tissues.

Increase or decrease

22

What could competition for transport lead to?

Drug-drug interactions

23

What is ion trapping used for?

Used to distribute drugs into the urinary compartment to inc the urinary excretion of poisons

24

If you overdose of aspirin or phenobarbital what can be done?

Alkalinization of the urine with systemic administration of sodium bicarbonate

25

If you overdose on amphetamine what can be done?

Acidification of the urine with systemic administration of ammonium chloride