Infections in Immunocomp Host pt 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infections in Immunocomp Host pt 1 Deck (36):
1

What are some factors that lead to a host being immunocompromised?

Defects or injury to physical barrier
Deficiencies in innate immunity
Deficiencies in adaptive immunity

2

What could a person be at risk for in a burn situation?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus pyogenes
Candida
Aspergillus

3

A gram positive cocci, catalase +, coagulase -

Staph epidermidis

4

A gram positive cocci, catalase +, coagulase +

Staph aureus

5

A gram-negative rod, greenish colored colonies on nutrient agar

Pseudomonas aeuginosa

6

Fungus with branches and septae

Aspergillus

7

What is likely to be found on the skin?

Staph and Strep

8

Where would pseudomonas be found in a hospital?

Water, clothing and bedding, improperly sanitized equpitment

9

Where would aspergillus be found in a hospital?

Air (spores), shower heads, potted plants

10

What are some characteristics of P. aeruginosa?

Ubiquitous, resistant to some disinfectants, antibiotic resistance common

11

What diseases could pseudomonas cause?

Pneumonia, UTI, septisemia, wound infections

12

What is ecthyma gangrenosum and how would you get it?

Hemorrhagic necrosis of skin due to pseudomonas septisemia

13

What are treatment options for S. aureus (MRSA)?

Vancomycin, Linezolid, streptogramins

14

What are treatment options for S. aureus (MSSA)?

Anti-staph penicillins (Oxacillin, nafcillin)
1st, 2nd generation cephalosporins
Clindamycin

15

How would you treat a pseudomonas infection?

Extended spectrum penicillins +/- beta-lactamase inhibitors; carbapemens, azreonam, fluoroquinolones, ceftazidime, cefepime and aminoglycosides

16

How would an apergillus infection be treated?

Voriconazole, Caspofungin, Amphotericin B

17

What would you use to treat a listeria infection?

Ampicillin plus gentamicin

18

What organism is a gram+ bacilli with branching (chain and bead) filaments that is partially acid fast?

Nocardia

19

What bacterial group is Nocardia a part of?

Actinomycete

20

Where would Nocardia be found?

In the dirt, transmitted by inhalation

21

What is a common outcome of having Nocardia?

Lobar pneumonia with abscess
May mimic TB

22

What is the treatment for Nocardia?

TMP/SMX

23

What bacteria is associated with HIV?

Mycobacterium avium

24

What does M. avium cause in immune competent individuals?

Pulmonary disease with lung condition in smokers

25

How is M. avium treated in ADIS pts?

Clarithromycin or azithromycin plus athambutol

26

What are some causes of AIDS neurological signs?

Cryptococcal meningitis
Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis

27

What are the characteristics of JC virus?

Polymavirus
Commonly latent
Causes PML in profoundly T cell suppressed

28

What are the characteristics of Cryptococal neoformans?

Monomorphic yeast
Thick polysac capsule upon inhalation
Evades phagocytosis and Th1 response
Enters meninges

29

What should you confirm a finding of Cryptococcal neoformans?

Sabouraud's agar, heart brain infusion

30

What should you treat Cryptococcal neoformans with?

Amp-B + flucytosine
Maintain with fluconazole

31

Where could histoplamsa capuslatum be found?

Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri
Soil with bird and bat droppings

32

Who is at risk for disseminated histoplasmosis?

Pts with profound T cell immune suppression

33

What are some of the clinical manifestations of H. capsulatum?

Limited flu-like illness
Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis

34

How should H, capsulatum be treated?

Amp-B with itraconazole maintenance

35

What type of organism if pneumocystis jiroveci?

Fungus possibly acquired by airborn cysts

36

How is Pneumocystis jiroveci treated?

TMP/SMX