Acute inflammation Flashcards Preview

MOD > Acute inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute inflammation Deck (26):
1

Is acute inflammation pathological of physiological

pathological

2

Is acute inflammation a specific or non specific initial reaction

non specific

3

what are the main causes of inflammation

ischaemia- cell death
trauma
toxins
chemical insults
thermal injury
radiation
infections- especially pus forming (bacterial)

4

define suppuration

formation of pus- dead cells, inflammatory cells, bacterial cells.

5

what 3 consequences are there of acute inflammation on the cells affected.

cell regrow.
cells cannot regrows.
damaging agent persists.

6

what is the purpose of acute inflammation

Clear away dead tissue- which can become secondarily infected
Local protect from infection- stop infection from spreading.
Allow access of immune system components (e.g. antibodies and complement components)..

7

what are the 4 cardinal signs

calor- heat
rubor- redness
dolor- pain
tumour- swelling

8

what are 3 signs of inflammation which can be seen with the naked eye.
(3 forms of liquid)

serous- outpouring of serous fluid which collects/ accumulates in the space.
Fibrinous- accumulation of fibrin.
Purulent- pus

9

what are the 3 main components of the acute inflammatory response.

vascular reaction- dilation and changes in flow
Exudative reaction- formation of inflammatory exudate, fluid leaks out of vessels.
Cellular reaction- migration of inflammatory cells out of vessels- neutrophils.

10

what are the systemic affects of inflammation

pyrexia- temperature
acute phase reaction- measuring the levels of certain proteins in the body

11

what happens in the vascular reaction of acute inflammation

microvascular dilatation.
Initially flow increases and then decreases (due to permeability)

12

why is oncotic pressure not maintained at the venous end in vascular reaction.

proteins leak out of vessels
no oncotic pressure is maintained and all the fluids leaks out

13

what molecules increase dilatation and permeability of vessels in the vascular reaction

mediated- histamine, bradykinin, NO, leukotriene, B4, complement components.
Non mediated- direct damage to endothelium, e.g. toxins, physical agents.

14

what is the main component of the Exudative reaction

protein rich- immunoglobulins and fibrinogen (forms a fibrin mesh and contains barterial infection within it. )

15

what is the function of the exudataive reaction

dilution of noxious agents
transport of bacteria to lymph nodes
Supply nutrients, O2-inflammed tissue has a high metabolic demand.
spread inflammatory mediators
spread drugs.

16

what happens in the cellular reaction

neutrophils leave the blood and enter the inflamed tissue.
in severe cases form pus.

17

where are neutrophils produced

bone marrow

18

which is the commonest WBC

neutrophil

19

what enables neutrophils to detect inflammation

Directional chemotaxis – to mediators.

20

Oxygen dependant neutrophils uses enzyme, one enzyme includes

myeloperoxidase producing free radicals- H202, Cl-, O2, OH-.- these break down the internal structure of the bacteria

21

oxygen independent neutrophils include

lysozyme, which breaks down bacterial cell wall.

22

what is margination in neutrophil activation

Neutrophils become closer to the wall of the blood vessel

23

what is pavmenting in neutrophil activation

Line up along the endothelial and from adhesions with them via receptors

24

there are 2 types of mediators of neutrophils

cellular
Stored- histamine in mast cells.
Synthesised: prostaglandins, leukotriens, PAF, NO, Cytokines (IL1, TNF), chemokines.

Plasma derived
kinin system, clotting pathway and thrombolytic pathway, complement pathway

25

what lab tests are used to see if inflammation is present

Full blood count
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate-how quickly RBC cells sediment under gravity.
Acute phase proteins eg C-reactive protein

26

what happens when an inflammatory process goes wrong

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Acute (adult) respiratory distress syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood
Hereditary angio-oedema
Amyloidosis