Flashcards in Acute inflammation Deck (26)
Is acute inflammation pathological of physiological
Is acute inflammation a specific or non specific initial reaction
what are the main causes of inflammation
ischaemia- cell death
infections- especially pus forming (bacterial)
formation of pus- dead cells, inflammatory cells, bacterial cells.
what 3 consequences are there of acute inflammation on the cells affected.
cells cannot regrows.
damaging agent persists.
what is the purpose of acute inflammation
Clear away dead tissue- which can become secondarily infected
Local protect from infection- stop infection from spreading.
Allow access of immune system components (e.g. antibodies and complement components)..
what are the 4 cardinal signs
what are 3 signs of inflammation which can be seen with the naked eye.
(3 forms of liquid)
serous- outpouring of serous fluid which collects/ accumulates in the space.
Fibrinous- accumulation of fibrin.
what are the 3 main components of the acute inflammatory response.
vascular reaction- dilation and changes in flow
Exudative reaction- formation of inflammatory exudate, fluid leaks out of vessels.
Cellular reaction- migration of inflammatory cells out of vessels- neutrophils.
what are the systemic affects of inflammation
acute phase reaction- measuring the levels of certain proteins in the body
what happens in the vascular reaction of acute inflammation
Initially flow increases and then decreases (due to permeability)
why is oncotic pressure not maintained at the venous end in vascular reaction.
proteins leak out of vessels
no oncotic pressure is maintained and all the fluids leaks out
what molecules increase dilatation and permeability of vessels in the vascular reaction
mediated- histamine, bradykinin, NO, leukotriene, B4, complement components.
Non mediated- direct damage to endothelium, e.g. toxins, physical agents.
what is the main component of the Exudative reaction
protein rich- immunoglobulins and fibrinogen (forms a fibrin mesh and contains barterial infection within it. )
what is the function of the exudataive reaction
dilution of noxious agents
transport of bacteria to lymph nodes
Supply nutrients, O2-inflammed tissue has a high metabolic demand.
spread inflammatory mediators
what happens in the cellular reaction
neutrophils leave the blood and enter the inflamed tissue.
in severe cases form pus.
where are neutrophils produced
which is the commonest WBC
what enables neutrophils to detect inflammation
Directional chemotaxis – to mediators.
Oxygen dependant neutrophils uses enzyme, one enzyme includes
myeloperoxidase producing free radicals- H202, Cl-, O2, OH-.- these break down the internal structure of the bacteria
oxygen independent neutrophils include
lysozyme, which breaks down bacterial cell wall.
what is margination in neutrophil activation
Neutrophils become closer to the wall of the blood vessel
what is pavmenting in neutrophil activation
Line up along the endothelial and from adhesions with them via receptors
there are 2 types of mediators of neutrophils
Stored- histamine in mast cells.
Synthesised: prostaglandins, leukotriens, PAF, NO, Cytokines (IL1, TNF), chemokines.
kinin system, clotting pathway and thrombolytic pathway, complement pathway
what lab tests are used to see if inflammation is present
Full blood count
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate-how quickly RBC cells sediment under gravity.
Acute phase proteins eg C-reactive protein