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Flashcards in cell injury Deck (70)
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1

define cell injury

injury to the smallest living unit in the body

2

what 4 factors does maintenance of cellular steady state involve.

1- preservation of genetic integrity
2- normal enzyme content.
3-intact membranes and transmembrane proteins.
4-Adequate supply of substrates and oxygen.

3

it a normal cell is put under stress what change will it undergo

adaptation

4

if a normal cell is put under injurious stimulus then what process will take place

cell injury

5

what 2 forms of cell injury are there

reversible
irreversible

6

is irreversible cell injury takes place what happens to the cell

apoptosis and necrosis.

7

If cells are put under stress due to increased cellular activity they often adapt by undergoing what 2 processes.

hyperplasia
hypertrophy

8

if cell are put under stress due to decreased cellular activity they adapt by undergo in what process

atrophy

9

metaplasia often occurs as a result of increased stress on a cell. what is metaplasia

change in cellular morphology

10

what changes morphologically occur in the cervix at puberty

at puberty the columnar cells replace some squamous cells at the squamouscoloumnar junction

11

What are the injurious stimuli which mean that a cell in unable to adapt and therefore becomes injured.

oxygen availability
physical trauma
chemical agents
infectious organisms
Irradiation
Others- immunological, lack of essential nutrients/vitamin, genetic disorders and ageing.

12

Lack of oxygen delivery to cells is known as

hypoxia

13

no oxygen delivery to cells is known as

anoxia

14

Do loss of oxygen availability result in schema

Yes- if lest to long
No- cell can be reposed if condition causing hypoxia/annoxia is resolved within the given time frame.

15

what are the 2 main causes of physical trauma that cause cell injury

Mechanical trauma- disrupt cell structure, thrombosis, bullet shot through the head cause devascularisation.
Extremes of temperature- heat which denatures proteins and ice crystals.

16

what are the chemical causes which cause cell injury

alcohol, tobacco, drugs, poisons, environmental and occupational.

17

what are the 2 main modes of action of chemical agents in causing cellular injury

simple denaturation
interference with cellular metabolism

18

what are the 2 types of bacterial toxins which result in cell injury

exotoxins.
endotoxins.

19

how do virus cause cell injury

Hijacking of cell machinery
and collateral damage by inflammation.

20

how does irradiation cause cello damage.

e.g. X-rays, radioactive particles
Generation of free radicals and direct damage to macromolecules

21

which parts of the body are very highly sensitive to irradiation

bone marrow, gonads, intestines- parts of the body with high turnover rate

22

which parts of the body are very lowly sensitive to irradiation

uterus, pancreas, adrenal

23

what are the main targets for cell injury

mitochondrial function
membrane integrity and function
protein synthesis
cytoskeleton
genetic apparatus.

24

surplus of what 2 chemicals can cause swelling (known as cloudy swelling) and what symptoms is this associated with.

Na+ and H20 surplus c- associated with hypoxia, but can be due to fever or damage due to toxins.

25

what is the consequence of ribosome detachment

decreased protein synthesis in the mitochondria.

26

what causes decreased pH in injured cells

low glycogen and high lactic acid.
low pH results in less lipids being packaged and hence they build up- fatty change.

27

define a free radical

Highly reactive ions or molecules with single unpaired electron in outer orbital e.g. oxygen free radicals

28

what can cause membrane defects

bacterial toxins, viral proteins, complement, cytolytic lymphocytes, and various physical and chemical agents

29

what detoxifies free radicals

superoxide dismutase and antioxidants.

30

Loss of membrane barriers leads to the loss in what function

maintaining metabolite gradients