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Flashcards in Introduction to microbiology Deck (55):
1

define akaryote

no nucleus

2

define prokaryote

single cell nucleus lacking membrane bound nucleus.

3

define eukaryote

all other cells with nuclei

4

what percentage of cells in the human body are of human origin

10%

5

what type of organism do most microbiota in the human body consist of

bacteria.

6

what organism is commonly found on the hard surface of teeth

streptococcus mutans

7

what organism is commonly found on the soft tissues of the mouth

streptococcus salivarius

8

what vitamin do the bacteria of the gut provide us with

vitamin K.

9

what chemical/ element required for life is produced by bacteria of the body

nitrogen.

10

what term is used to describe bacteria which cause disease

pathogenic or virulence

11

do all bacteria in the body cause harm

No.

12

what is used to identify or determine whether an organism causes disease or not.

Koch's postulates.

13

what is stated in koch's postulates (4 points) for an organism

The causative organism must be isolated from every individual suffering from the disease in question.
The causative organism must be cultivated artificially in pure culture.
When the causative organism is inoculated from pure culture, the typical symptoms of the infection must result.
The causative organism must be recoverable from individuals who are infected experimentally

14

what is stated in koch's postulates for virulent genes. (6 factors)

The gene encoding the trait of interest should be present and transcribed/translated in a virulent strain.
the gene encoding the trait of interest should NOT be present or should be silent in a strain that does not cause disease;
disruption of the gene in a virulent strain should result in the formation of a strain that is incapable of casing disease;
introduction of the gene into a strain that previously did not cause disease should transform the strain into one that does cause disease;
the gene must be expressed during infection;
antibodies raised against the gene product
or the appropriate cell-mediated immunity
should protect experimental subjects
against disease.

15

what are the main issues with Koch's postulates

difficulty of isolation the causative agent.
impossible to grow some
ethical objections

16

what is the basic structure of a virus

nuclei acid core with a protein coat.
some may have an envelope.

17

are viruses intracellular or exracellular.

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites.

18

how do reteroviruses cause disease.

Retroviruses are unusual in that the virion carries an RNA copy of the genome but upon infection of a host cell a cDNA copy of the virus genome is made using the enzyme reverse transcriptase and put into the human genome.

19

what organism causes plant infections

Viroids.

20

what organism is spongiform encephalopathies classed as

prion

21

define viroids

naked, infectious RNA molecules that are not associated with any proteins.

22

are fungi, prokaryotic, eukaryotic or akaryotic.

eukaryotic

23

what is the cell wall of fungi made from

chitin- polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine

24

define moulds

a type of fungi that grow in mats of tiny filaments known as hyphae that form mats called mycelia.

25

are moulds multicellular or unicellular

muulticellular

26

are yeasts multicellular or unicellular

unicellular

27

what is the most common yeast infection

thrush" caused by Candida albicans.

28

what is the most common mould infection

superficial infections such as ringworm and athlete's foot.

29

Are protista eukaryotes, prokaryotes or akaryotes

eukaryotes

30

what are the 4 classes of protista.

1. apicomplxa (formerly sporozoa),
2. flagellate protista,
3. ciliate protista and
4. amoebae.

31

what organism was considered a protist but is known known to be a virus

Pneumocystis jiroveci

32

which protists organism causes vaginal infections and what is a symptom of this

Trichomonas vaginalis.
vaginal discharge.

33

are bacteria prokaryotes, eukaryotes or akorytes

prokaryotes

34

explain the crystal violet test for gram -ve and gram +ve organisms,

o Apply crystal violet to bacteria and it chousl stain violet
o Add iodine
o Wash with ethanol
o If the stain is removed it is gram –ve bacteria and if the stain remains it is gram +ve bacteria.

35

what is the envelope of gram positive bacteria made up from

30-40 layers of a uniquely bacterial polymer “peptidoglycan
(short peptides containing both D- and L- amino acids.)

36

what is the envelope of gram negative bacteria made up from

very little peptidoglycan: it possesses an extra, complex “outer membrane”.

37

what additional membrane of gram -ve bacteria contains what

outer leaflet containing lipopolysaccharide.
sugars- form antigens on the bacterium.
lipid- acts as a endotoxin (responsible fro gram -ve shock).

38

what is the function of flagella on bacteria

helps movement

39

what is the function of hair like strutures fimbrae on gram -ve bacteria.

helps adhesion onto a particular surface.

40

what is the function os a capsule around bacteria

helping to prevent the cell from being killed- phagocytosis

41

gram - ve bacteria also undertake conjugation, what is conjugation

Gram-negative bacteria exchange genetic material through sex pili tubes

42

what is the function of slime produced by bacteria

help them to stick to surfaces.

43

what is the function of endospores produced by some bacteria

resist a range of hazardous environments, and protect against heat, radiation, and desiccation.

44

what are the most common ways in which infection is spread

Person-to-person spread of infections- airborne.
sexually transmissible
direct inoculation.- sharing needles of blood transfusion.
Animals
faceal oral route

45

define zoonoses

animals are the reservoir for bacteria such as Salmonella enteric.

46

define fomites

Inanimate objects such as paper, pens, surgical instruments, etc. may also act as the vectors of infection

47

what organisms are spread via the faecal oral route

Typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A and poliomyelitis

48

what mechanisms do bacteria use to cause disease

produce structures that enable micro-organisms to attach to the surface at which they cause disease.
produce toxin- endotoxin or exotoxin.
produce aggressions
initiating undesirable consequences of the host defences.

49

define virulence factor

The traits used to complete the cycle of infection

50

pathogenic bacteria produce soluble antigens, what molecules do these bind to.

combine with antibodies to produce circulating immune complexes.

51

why are immune complexes in circulation a problem

trapped in blood vessels

52

glomerulonephritis is a immune complex mediated condition which bacteria causes this.

kidney damage following an infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.

53

what is rheumatic fever

immunological cross-reactions between human tissue antigens and antigens on Streptococcus progenies (or any streptococcal infection)

54

what is the pathogenesis of TB

Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces disease by over-stimulation of our immune response to infection.

55

What is a TB tubercle made of

the characteristic lesion of tuberculosis, has as a major component of the lesion mixtures of giant cells formed by the fusion of several macrophages as well as activated macrophages and lymphocytes,