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Flashcards in cellular adaptation Deck (34):
1

do cellular adaptation occur during physiological or pathological events

Both
can be physiological
can be pathological

2

what are the common reversible adaptations found in cells

size, number, phenotype, metabolic activity, function.

3

why is the aim of adaptation

Acquire new, steady state of metabolism and structure
Better equips cells to survive in a new environment
Failure of adaptation may lead to sub-lethal or lethal cell injury

4

do fibroblasts adapt to there environment and if not why not

Survive severe metabolic stress without harm
eg absence of O2

5

can cerebral neurones adapt, if not why not

Terminally differentiated
Permanent cell population
Highly specialised function
Easily damaged by environmental change

6

how do cells reposed to increased demand

hypertrophy
hyperplasia

7

what are the main types of adaptation

increased and decreased cellular activity or change in cell function

8

what changes does hypertrophy result in

Increase in size of existing cells
Increase in functional capacity
Increased synthesis of structural components
Increased metabolism

9

what cell population does hypertrophy typically happen in - permanent, stable, liable

permanent.

10

Ventricular hypertrophy results in increased ectopic beats, why might this be dangerous.

predispose to sudden degeneration of rhythm to ventricular tachycardia shown on the ECG, or to ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death.

11

define sub cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia

Increase in size and number of subcellular organelles

12

when does physiological hypertrophy take place

uterus in pregnancy.
prostate with age.

13

define Hyperplasia

Increase in number of cells

14

what cell population does hyperplasia occur in permanent, stable or liable

stable or liable

15

Is gynaecomastia physiological or pathological

hyperplasia of the glandular and stromal tissue in the breast

physiological- puberty
pathological- drugs and liver damage.

16

what is the pathopysiology of grave's disease.

autoantibody binds to and switches on the TSH receptor in the thyroid, leading to prolonged, uncontrolled hyperplasia of the thyroid and hyperthyroidism

17

define atrophy

Reduction in size of organ or tissue by decrease in cell size and number

18

physiological atrophy includes

Embryogenesis, uterus after pregnancy or menopause

19

what are the causes of pathological atrophy

decreased workload
loss of innervation
diminished blood supply
inadequate nutrition
loss of endocrine stimulation
pressure

20

what structures in the body undergo atrophy

aging an cerebrovascular disease- brain
kidney-decreased blood supply and back pressure form ureteric obstruction
thymus
adrenal cortex-caused by steroid therapy

21

why must long term steroides be stopped very slowly otherwise they would result Addisonian.

atrophy of the adrenal cortex caused by steroid therapy which would reduce the ACTH drive to the adrenal, causing a decrease in hormonal stimulation. This is a significant clinical issue. Long term steroids must be stopped very slowly to give the adrenals time to recover or the patient may be at risk of an Addisonian crisis due to hypoadrenalism.

22

what are 2 examples of hypertrophy

Uterus in pregnancy
ventricular hypertrophy

23

examples of hyperplasia

Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of prostate.
Cirrhotic liver- abnormal healing process leads to hyper plastic nodules
hypertrophy of one kidney due to hyperplasia of the other
Grave's disease
Gynaecomastia

24

define metaplasia

Transformation of one differentiated cell type into another

25

Is metaplasia physiological or pathological

both
physiological-adaptation
pathological- cancer

26

define dysplasia

change of a cell type into another and proliferation
In-situ disease; non-invasive

27

is carcinoma in situ the same as dysplasia

yes.

28

before a cancer truly invades the basement membrane and when it is just proliferation what is it known as

dysplasia.

29

what type of cancer occurs in the cervix

squamous metaplasia

30

what type of cancer does endometrial hyperplasia due to increased oestrogen's cause

adenocarcinomas

31

what type of cancer does parathyroid hyperplasia due to renal failure cause

adenoma

32

what type of cancer does squamous metaplasia of the bronchus cause

dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

33

what type of cancer does metaplasia of the bladder cause

squamous cell carcinoma

34

what type of cancer does glandular metaplasia in the oesophagus cause

adenocarcinoma