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Flashcards in Additional Deck (36):
1

Give examples of bacteria with a linear chromosome.

Borrelia burdorferi
Streptomyces griseus
Agrobacterium tumefaciens

2

Give examples if bacteria two circular chromosomes.

Leptospira interrogans
Brucella melitensis

3

What is genetics?

Study of heredity

4

The genetic information in a cell is?

Genome

5

Where can genomes be present?

chromosomes
plasmids
mitochondria

6

What are genes?

Segments of DNA or RNA which code for functional proteins.

7

What is the basic components of DNA?

A chain of nucleotides that contain phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base

8

Purines are?

Adenine and Guanine

9

Pyrimidines are?

Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine

10

Adenine hydrogen bonds with__________?
Cytosine hydrogen bonds with _________?

Thymine; Guanine

11

What is the enzyme responsible for DNA replication on the leading strand?

DNA polymerase

12

On the lagging strand of DNA what are the enzymes?

DNA polymerase and DNA ligase

13

What does DNA ligase do?

Joins the Okazaki/discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand.

14

T:F DNA ribosomes contains DNA

False: DNA ribosomes synthesis proteins from RNA.

15

What is genotype?

Genetic make up (entire genes)

16

What is phenotype?

Actual expressed properties (proteins)

17

What are proteins made of?

Amino acids

18

How many proteinogenic amino acids are there?

23

19

What are codons?

Three letter nucleotide base codes in RNA which code for amino acids

20

What are introns?

Non-coding sections of DNA

21

Coding sections of DNA are called?

Exons

22

What is the process called that transcription introns are removed?

Splicing

23

Key enzyme in amplifying RNA

Reverse transcriptase

24

Who first discovered DNA?

Johannes Friedrich Miescher

25

Who used X ray crystallography to identify shape of DNA?

Rosalind Franklin

26

J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick did what

Determined the structure of DNA

27

What does PCR stand for?

polymerase chain reaction

28

What is the process of PCR?

Amplify specific DNA fragments from genes

29

What are the components of PCR reaction

Oligonucleotide Primers
Deoxynucleotides - A,T,G,C
Taq Polymerase (A thermostable polymerase)
Target DNA

30

What are the three steps of PCR?

1) Denaturation
2) Annealing
3) Extension

31

How many cycles of PCR are usually ran?

30-40 cycles. Resulting in over 536,870,912 copies

32

Main problem with PCR in practice?

Have to know what you are looking for and have to ask for specific things.

33

What is the best for sequencing viruses?

Reverse Transcriptase PCR. Viruses only have RNA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR only sequences RNA.

34

What dose Reverse Transcriptase do?

Reversely transcribes RNA to DNA

35

Describe Real Time PCR?

It is regular PCR with a TaqMan Probe that is specific to a gene. It is used determine the total amount of that gene sequencing.

36

Recombinant DNA is carried out by?

Taking a piece of Eukaryote DNA and putting it into a cloning or plasmid vector and then coping it.