Flashcards in Additional Deck (36):
Give examples of bacteria with a linear chromosome.
Give examples if bacteria two circular chromosomes.
What is genetics?
Study of heredity
The genetic information in a cell is?
Where can genomes be present?
What are genes?
Segments of DNA or RNA which code for functional proteins.
What is the basic components of DNA?
A chain of nucleotides that contain phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base
Adenine and Guanine
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
Adenine hydrogen bonds with__________?
Cytosine hydrogen bonds with _________?
What is the enzyme responsible for DNA replication on the leading strand?
On the lagging strand of DNA what are the enzymes?
DNA polymerase and DNA ligase
What does DNA ligase do?
Joins the Okazaki/discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand.
T:F DNA ribosomes contains DNA
False: DNA ribosomes synthesis proteins from RNA.
What is genotype?
Genetic make up (entire genes)
What is phenotype?
Actual expressed properties (proteins)
What are proteins made of?
How many proteinogenic amino acids are there?
What are codons?
Three letter nucleotide base codes in RNA which code for amino acids
What are introns?
Non-coding sections of DNA
Coding sections of DNA are called?
What is the process called that transcription introns are removed?
Key enzyme in amplifying RNA
Who first discovered DNA?
Johannes Friedrich Miescher
Who used X ray crystallography to identify shape of DNA?
J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick did what
Determined the structure of DNA
What does PCR stand for?
polymerase chain reaction
What is the process of PCR?
Amplify specific DNA fragments from genes
What are the components of PCR reaction
Deoxynucleotides - A,T,G,C
Taq Polymerase (A thermostable polymerase)
What are the three steps of PCR?
How many cycles of PCR are usually ran?
30-40 cycles. Resulting in over 536,870,912 copies
Main problem with PCR in practice?
Have to know what you are looking for and have to ask for specific things.
What is the best for sequencing viruses?
Reverse Transcriptase PCR. Viruses only have RNA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR only sequences RNA.
What dose Reverse Transcriptase do?
Reversely transcribes RNA to DNA
Describe Real Time PCR?
It is regular PCR with a TaqMan Probe that is specific to a gene. It is used determine the total amount of that gene sequencing.