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Flashcards in Continue Deck (40):
1

What is immunology?

A branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.

2

What must a pathogen do in order to cause disease?

1) Gain access to the body
2) Attach to and/or enter cells if its host
3) While in the body reproduce and avoid host's immune system
4) produce harmful changes in the host

3

The ability of the body to ward off disease through defense mechanisms is known as what

Immunity

4

The body's vulnerability to disease is called?

Susceptibility

5

Why is it essential to have an understanding of immunology?

To diagnose, treat, manage and prevent disease.
To conduct research to optimize immune responses to confront specific issues, ranging form infections to cancer.

6

What are the two types of diagnostic test that you will look for?

The agent causing the problem and/or the response

7

What is immune system?

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infection and other harmful substances.
The immune system prevents and limits the entry and effect of intruders to maintain optimal health.

8

What are the types of immune responses?

Innate immune response
Adaptive immune response
Immune memory

9

What is the innate immune response?

Defense mechanisms that present at birth
Always present and available
Occurs immediately, when circulating innate cells recognize a problem
Nonspecific

10

What is the adaptive immune response?

Specific immune response to pathogens once they have breached innate immunitys

11

What is the function of immune memory?

Follows the adaptive response, when mature adaptive cells, highly specific to the original pathogen, are retained for later use.

12

How does the immune system prevent disease?

Prevent entry of pathogens
Neutralize and remove pathogens after they have entered the body
Destroy body's own cells that have changed due to an illness

13

Main organ involved in immune response is?

Bone marrow: It contains all the stem cells for all the immune cells

14

What are the two types of immune cells?

Myeloid cells and Lymphoid cells

15

What do Myeloid cells include?

eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, momocytes, dendritic cell, and macrophages

16

Lymphoid cells include?

B cells, T cells and Natural killer cells

17

T:F The Thymus Gland is NOT a man contributor to the immune system

False - the Thymus Gland is a main contributor to the immune system

18

Where is the Thymus Gland located and what does it do?

Located in the thoracic cavity and T cells undergo positive and negative selection in the thymus

19

What system is a network of vessels and tissue composed of lymph, and extracellular fluid, and lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes.

Lymphatic system

20

What does the lymphatic system do?

Immune cells are carried through the lymphatic system and converge in lymph nodes

21

What are the primary lymphoid organs?

Thymus and bone marrow

22

What are the secondary lymphoid organs?

Lymph node, Spleen, Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue

23

What are the first, second, and third line of defense?

First - Innate and nonspecific
Second - Innate and non specific
Third - Adaptive and specific

24

What are the first line of defense?

Skin and mucous membrane
Physical barriers
Chemical barriers
Normal microbiota

25

What does the second line of defense include?

Phagocytes
Inflammation
Fever
Antimicrobial substance

26

What are some Phagocytes?

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Monocytes/Macrophages

27

What is the difference between Monocytes and Macrophages?

Monocytes are in the blood
Macrophages are in the tissue

28

Which are the cells involved in innate immune system?

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, basophils, Monocytes/Dendric cells/ Macrophages

29

T:F Lymphoid cells like T cells and B cells are part of innate immune system

False. They are part of adaptive immune system.

30

List the cells that are Granulocytes.

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Mast Cells

31

List the Agranulocytes.

Lymphocytes and monocytes

32

Monocyte in the tissue is called

Histiocytes

33

Kupffer cell

Monocyte in the liver is called

34

Monocyte in the skin is called

Langerhan's cell and Dendritic cells

35

Microglia

Monocyte in the brain is called

36

Monocyte in the bone is called

Osteoclast

37

Phagocytosis

Process of ingestion microorganisms, cellular debris, and nutrients

38

The phagocytic cells in the immune system

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Macrophages/Monocytes

39

What are the stages of phagocytosis

Chemotaxis
Adherence
Ingestion
Digestion
Elimination

40

Opsonization is?

The process by which a microbe is marked for destruction by phagocytes