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Flashcards in BacT lecture 7 Deck (56):
1

Gram-neg bacteria rods and cocci Nonfermenting, aerobic/ microaerophilic important Genera

Pseudomonas
Brucella

2

Describe Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Opportunist environmental microorganism
Highly antimicrobial resistance - nosocomial infections
All animals
Specifically in dogs- ear infections, UTI

3

Describe Brucella

Hard to grow in lab because it is a strict aerobes and grow very slowly
Facultative intracellular pathogen
Causes Brucellosis - affects organs rich in sugar erythritol
Causes infertility, sterility, mastitis, abortion
Carried asymptomatically

4

What are the 4 species of Brucella?

Brucella abortus - cattle
Brucella melitensis - sheep and goats
Brucella suis - swine
Brucella canis - dogs

5

How is Brucella unique?

Reproductive system and general illness
Survive in macrophages (Stops macrophages from lysing)
Zoonotic and some non zoonotic
Persists in several counties

6

Gram-neg bacteria Nonfermenting, aerobic/microaerophilic spiral shape and spirochette

Spiral shape
Genus Campylobacter

Spirochette
Genera Leptospira
Genera Borrelia

7

Most Campylobacter species are?

Pathogenic and can infect humans and animals

8

Campylobacter jejuni cause?

Gastrointestinal disease in many species
One of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developing countries

9

Genus Leptospira are?

Spirochete, gram- neg, pathogenic leptospires are included in species L. interrogans

10

Genus Leptospira cause?

Leptospirosis. It is in the urine of infected carrier animals

11

Genus Borrelia are?

Spirochetes, gram- neg

12

Genus Borrelia species example is?

Borrelia burgdorferi
Causes lyme disease (borreliosis) in humans and animals
Transmitted by ticks

13

Class Mollicutes are?

Contain no cell wall - no peptidoglycan
They are the smallest prokaryotic cells capable of self replication
Genera Mycoplasma and Ureaplama are the only with pathogenic species.

14

Genus Mycoplasma unique characteristics are?

Need special media and forms fried egg colonies.
M. pneumonia - walking pneumonia in humans
M. bovis -pneumonia and arthritis in cattle
Do not stain
Cannot use Beta Lactins antibiotics.

15

Obligate intracellular pathogens two genera of importance?

Chlamydia
Richettsia

16

Genus Chlamydia are

Gram-neg pleomorphic, obligate intracellular.
Energy parasites, do not generate ATP depend on host ATP

17

Chlamydophyla psittaci cause what?

psittacosis in humans and avian chlamydosis in birds and bovine abortion.
Zoonotic disease
Infect mucous membranes of respiratory and GI tract.

18

Genus Rickettsia are?

Gram-neg cocobacilli, obligate intracellular bacteria

19

Rickettsia rickettsia causes?

Rocky MT spotted fever in humans and in dogs
Vector is a tick

20

What are the two bacteria that have vectors?

Rickettsia
Borrelia

21

T:F There are more pathogenic fungi than beneficial.

False
There is more beneficial effects than harmful effects of fungi.

22

When are animal susceptible to fungi infections?

Suppressed immune systems

23

Which are more susceptible to fungi infections- animal or plants?

Plants

24

What is the direct difference between fungi and bacteria in the cell type?

Fungi are Eukaryotic
Bacteria are Pokaryotic

25

What is the direct difference between fungi and bacteria in the cell membrane?

Fungi have sterols present (ergosterol)
Bacteria sterols absent, except in mycoplasma spp.

26

What is the direct difference between fungi and bacteria in the cell wall composition?

Fungi contain glucans, mannans, chitin (No peptidoglycan)
Bacteria have peptidoglycan

27

What is the direct difference between fungi and bacteria in the metabolism?

Fungi are heterotrophs; aerobic, facultatively anaerobic
Bacteria are heterotrophic, autotrophic, photosythetic, aerobic, anaerobic, facultative anaerobic

28

Fungi are saprophytes which mean?

They obtain nutrients by decomposing dead and decaying matter

29

Pathogenic disease causing fungi are known as

Mycosis or Mycoses

30

Fungi that produce toxins that cause disease are called?

Mycotoxicosis or Mycotoxicoses

31

Classification of fungi based on morphology of the thallus is through?

Asexual structures are referred to as anamorphs

32

Classification of fungi based on sexual reproduction through?

Sexual structures known as telomorphs

33

Classification of the whole fungus is known as?

The holomorph

34

The three classifications of fungi based on morphology are?

Molds
Yeast
Dimorphic

35

Molds are?

Filamentous fungi from which is a vegetative growth of filaments

36

Yeast are?

Single celled, cells that bud to form blastoconidia

37

Dimorphic fungi are?

Fungi that exist in two different morphological forms at two different environmental conditions.

38

What are the two morphological forms of dimorphic fungi?

They exist as yeast in tissue and in vitro at 37C and as mold in their natural habitat and in vitro at room temp

39

Structures such as mushrooms consist simply of a number of filaments packed tightly together and reproduction is by?

asexual spores (conidia/sporangiopores)

40

Conidia are produced in structures called?
Sporangiopores are produced in a structure called?

Conidiophores

Sporangiophore

41

Fungal filaments are also known as?

Hyphae

42

A mass of hyphae collectively make up the?

Mycelium

43

What are the two kinds of hyphae?

Non-septate
Septate

44

What is it called when yeast buds fail to detach?

Pseudohyphae

45

What are the four classifications of mycosis?

Superficial
Cataneous mycoses
Subcutaneous mycoses
Deep/systemic mycoses

46

Superficial mycoses are?

Outer skin layer - no immune response; caused mostly by yeast.

47

Cutaneous mycoses are?

Epidermal layers - evoke immune response

48

Subcutaneous mycoses are?

Chronic infection of subdermal tissue; may require surgical intervention

49

Deep/systemic mycoses are?

Mostly originating in the lung caused by virulent dimorphic fungi

50

Most common fungal infections are caused by?

Opportunistic mycosis

51

The three most representative genera for fungal infections are?

Canadida albicans: Candidiasis
Cryptococcus neoformans: Cryptococcosis
Aspergillus sp: Aspergillosis

52

Opportunistic mycosis in Candidiasis are?

Superficial or deep
Alimentary tract and IV catheters are sources for deep
Kidney, liver, spleen, brain, eyes, heart.
Risk factors long broad spectrum antibiotic use, chemo, corticosteroids, IV catheters

53

Mycotoxicosis

Group of illnesses and disorders in HB and animal resulting from toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins) produced by some fungi species.

54

Claviceps

Rye mold - contaminated rye produces ergot and leads to ergotism

55

Aspergillus

Produces aflatoxin; which grow in many plant materials; low levels of toxin can be carcinogenic.

56

Amanita

Poisonous mushroom