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Flashcards in ADHD Deck (20):

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is now called neurodevelopmental disorder. What are the 3 types of ADHD and describe them

-ADHD combined --> inattentive & impulsive
-ADHD inattentive --> can't focus
-ADHD hyperactive/impulsive --> can focus, but hyperactive


ADHD symptoms start at a young age usually before 12. What are some inattention symptoms of ADHD? How many of these symptoms and for at least how long does a patient have the symptoms?

6 inattention symptoms for 6 months:
-poor attn --> mistakes
-cannot sustain attention
-does not listen
-does not follow through
-does not organize
-avoids tasks
-loses things
-is distracted
-is forgetful


List some hyperactive/impulsive symptoms of ADHD

6 hyperactive symptoms for 6 months:
-leaves seat
-not quiet
-talks a lot
-blurts out
-cannot wait turn


In ADHD, as patient ages, which symptoms (inattentiveness or hyperactivity) persist greater?



At least 76% of ADHD is heritable. Which chromosome is most obvious finding? What are some genes that are linked to ADHD (broadly speaking?

chromosome 16
-neurotransmission and neuroplasticity


Neuronal firing and tone matters. What conditions can hypoactivity and hyperactivity of neuronal firing and tone lead to?

hypoactivity --> ADHD, MDD, Schizophrenia, negative symptoms

hyperactivity --> hypervigilant, psychosis


what's the link btw neurodevelopment and ADHD?

ADHD brain develops 2 years slower than non-ADHD brain


What's going on with the anterior cingulate in ADHD patients?

ADHD patients show abnormalities in ACC activation as well as other areas (prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, temporal and parietal cortex)

ACC is involved in impulse control, emotions, reward anticipation, decision-making, rational cognitive functions


What's happening to NE and DA levels in ADHD?

NE --> decrease tonic NE firing in prefrontal cortex
DA --> decrease tonic DA firing in prefrontal cortex


What's happening to 5-HT in ADHD?



T/F: Lead poisoning, head injuries, and cigarette use/alcohol use in pregnancy are listed as one of the environment factors that can lead to ADHD



What is the most likely psychiatric disorder that a patient with ADHD will have?

anxiety disorder


T/F: ADHD patients at times fall off growth curve because of medications causing lower weight/slower weight gain.



What do stimulants that are used in treating ADHD do? What are some stimulants

-promote DA and NE activity
-most carry risk of addition
-paranoia in misuse
-stunt growth, weight loss
-maybe cardiac issues


What are some non-stimulants that are used to treat ADHD because they have no addiction risk?

-atomoxetine (norepineprine reuptake inhibitor)
-guanfacin ER and Clonidine ER (a2 agonists--> improves glutamate transmission)


What are some behavioral modification and training in the management of ADHD?

-self control therapy
-behavioral parent training
-education support
-distraction control
-attention sustaining
-cognitive restructuring


Why is age important in the treatment of ADHD patients?

-in kids/teens --> start with stimulants because work 80-90% and worry about addiction later

-in adults --> get non-addictive drugs first


Are amphetamines approved in preschool ADHD?



children with ADHD are more likely to be physically abused by their parents b/c and they are more likely to show what type of disorders?

more likely to be abused because of their problematic behavior and more likely to show behavior-disruptive disorders.


CNS stimulants like methylphenidate (Ritualin) and dextroamphetamine work by increasing dopamine concentration in the brain whereas non-stimulants like atomoxetine, guanfacine work by?

regulating neural levels of NE