Flashcards in The Life Cycle Deck (32):
How many weeks at birth determine prematurity?
< 37 wks
What is the APGAR score?
A - appearance
P - pulse
G - grimace (reflex)
A - activity (muscle tone)
R - respiration
To predict likelihood of immediate survival
Each is scored on a scale of 0, 1, 2
10 being the best score
at least 7 is no imminent survival threat
<4 is imminent survival threat
In children, what does it mean that cognitive/verbal development progresses from understanding to expression?
a young child typically can understand more words than he can speak
Chess and Thomas showed that infants at birth possess temperament. What is temperament? What are the 3 temperament groups?
innate traits such as activity level, reactivity to stimuli, cyclic behavior patterns like sleeping, attn span.
-easy children: adaptable to change, show regular eating and sleeping patterns and usu show positive mood
-difficult children: not adaptable to change, show irregular eating and sleeping patterns, and tend ot have intense expressions of mood
-slow-to-warm-up children: show traits of difficult children but then adapt and improve over time as their exp with social contact increases
Briefly describe these ppl's theories of development:
Erik Erickson: critical periods for achievement of social goals; if not reached, problems in future
Jean Piaget: cognitive and learning capabilities of the child at each age that are more closely related to neurological maturity than innate potential
Margaret Mahler: sequential process of separation of the child from primary caregivers. The ease in which this occurs determines ability to form trusting and emotionally fulfilling relationships in adult life
Sigmund Freud: parts of body in which most pleasure is derived at each stage
In the first postnatal month, children are in normal autistic phase. What does that mean?
state of self-involvement and lack of interest in others
When does social smile occur?
btw 1st-2nd months (12 weeks) of life when children bgein to respond to other ppl
when do infants start showing special responsiveness to his mother/primary caregivers?
btw 4-6 months
when do infants develop stranger anxiety?
What is object permanence and when do infants learn this?
at around 1-year-old, infants learn that even when the objects are not there (toys, ppl), they continue to exist elsewhere -will search for them.
What are the 3 spheres of development?
Describe these reflexes:
Palmar Grasp reflex
Rooting reflex: touch cheek, turn toward nipple
Sucking reflex: suck nipple & obtain nourishment
Palmar Grasp reflex: grip any object put in palm
Moro Reflex: limbs extend when child is startled
Babinski Reflex: dorsiflexion of toes when the sole of foot is stroked (gone at 1 year)
define Rapprochement in toddlers
moves away but then quickly returns for comfort
When do toddlers begin to say "NO"
2 years of age
From 18 months - 3 years old, how are toddlers playing with each other? What about before 18 months?
parallel play: next to but not reciprocal btw 18 months - 3years; before 18 months --> solitary play.
When do children gain bowel and bladder function?
4 and 5 years
When do children identify with a gender?
When does cooperative play btw children occur?
When do children have active fantasy life and have strong fear of bodily injury so not a good time for elective procedures, also like to play doctor?
3 - 6 years
When do children develop conscience/superego, a sense of morality, empathy, learn that lying is wrong and understand the finality of death?
6 years old
When do children begin to compare themselves to others (industry vs inferiority)?
When are learning problems usu identified?
btw 7-11 years
When do children understand the finality of death? What about when they can understand universality of death ("I can die too")?
6 -understand they can lose loved ones
9 -they can die too
Adolescence is 11-20 years. How are these years divided into early, middle, late? Give characteristics of each phase.
Early: 11-14 (puberty is the physical indicator, tanner staging, usually more obedient)
Middle: 15-17 (risk taking, body image & popularity, less likely to listen)
Late: 18-20 (identity crisis, role confusion, some develop abstraction)
Pruning of up to 50% of synaptic connections, and decline in glucose and O2 metabolism occur at which stage of life?
adolescence: 11-20 years
Early adulthood is defined as 20-40 years. When is one's role in society defined?
Why is middle adulthood (40-65 years) unique?
"sandwich generation" with responsibilites to both older and younger relatives
What are some neurological changes of aging?
-decreased cerebral blood flow
-decreased brain weight
-decreased NT availability
-more sensitive to side effects
but intelligence remains the same
What are Elizabeth Kubler-Ross's stages of dying?
not in any order
Compare and contrast bereavement (normal grief) vs complicated bereavement
both have initial shock and denial
denial in abnormal grief can last over days or weeks
both have sadness. in normal grief, this will subside over 1-2 years
abnormal grief intensify or persist over time and might involve suicidal thinking or hallucinations
If a child at 3 years of age does not feel comfortable being away from the mother, it could be early signs of?
separation anxiety disorder b/c the children should be developing autonomy