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Flashcards in Depression Deck (15):

Based on the DSM V, someone must have 5 or more of the following 9 symptoms present during the same 2-wk period and present a change from previous functioning. List the 9 symptoms and what does at least one of the symptoms be?

One of the symptoms must be either depressed mod or loss of interest or pleasure.

1) depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day made by oneself or others
2) anhedonia
3) significant weight loss/weight gain; decrease or increase in appetite
4) insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every other day
5) psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
6) fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
7) feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day
8) diminished ability to think or concentrate or indecisiveness, nearly every day
9) suicidial ideations


What is atypical depression?

more likely to have weight gain and hypersomnia, report a feeling of heaviness in the arms and legs (leaden paralysis), craving for carb-rich food


What is pseudodementia?

cognitive symptoms in depressed elderly often misdiagnosed as dementia


What is diurnal variation?

more depressed in AM, better in PM
ex. Melancholic type depression


What is seasonal affective disorder? How to treat?

MDD usu assoc with shorter days in winter, usu with atypical symptoms, treat with full-spectrum light exposure, psychotherapy, antidepressants


What is masked depression?

person seems stoic; is depressed with vague physical ailments but unaware/in denial of depression; more typically seen in elderly pts, OCD/narcissitic personality as well as ppl who believe they have no time to be depressed.


What are some possible medical causes of depressive symptoms?

-cushing's syndrome
-brain injury, stroke
-vitamin deficiency
-obstructive sleep apnea


What's the monoamine deficiency theory and monoamine receptor excess theory in depression?

decrease levels of DA, 5-HT and NE and high levels of receptors may cause depression


What are some effects of stress and cortisol on development of depression?

Stress leads to higher cortisol levels which destroy brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF)


List the 3 frontline anti-depressants?



Anti-depressants take up to 8 weeks to work. What's the fastest most effective way to improve depression?

Shock treatment


What are some "augmenting" strategies for when antidepressants alone aren't enough?

-thyroid hormone
-atypical antipsychotic


List 4 other neurostimulation techniques in treatment of depression

-vagus nerve stimulation
-transcranial magnetic stimulation
-deep brain stimulation
-transcranial direct current stimulation


What is learned helplessness in depression?

keep failing to get away from negative situations --> feeling of helplessness and hopelessness


Best treatment for depression: 1) anti-depressants 2) therapy 3) both