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Flashcards in Bipolar disorder Deck (15):

Define dysthymia and hypomania

dysthymia and hypomania are attenuated/not as severe versions of depression and mania, respectively.


What are the SWAG symptoms? What can they help identify.

Weight loss
Absence of pleasure in one's usual activities

These symptoms along with disruption in work or interpersonal relationships can help identify mood disorders (e.g. depression).


Define bipolar disorder I and II

Bipolar disorder I --> mania +/- major depressive disorder

Bipolar disorder II --> hypomania +/- major depressive disorder


List some symptoms of a manic episode

-inflated self-image
-excessive optimism
-increased energy and activity
-rapid thoughts and speech
-often have decreased need for sleep and decreased appetite for food
-increase appetite for sex
-uncharacteristic lack of modesty in dress and behavior
-inability to control aggressive impulses


At least 3 of the 7 symptoms must be present for at least 2 weeks and a distinct, abnormal, elevated, expansive (or irritable mood) for 7 days minimum to be diagnosed with mania. List the possible 7 symptoms

1. increased self-esteem/gradiosity
2. decreased sleep
3. increased speech
4. racing thoughts
5. distractibility
6. increased activity (and energy is key)
7. increase dangerous impulsivity


List the DTRHIGH (an acronym used to remember symptoms of mania)

Racing thoughts


Define hypomania.

milder mania but have similar symptoms as mania; must have symptoms for at least 4 days or more. The symptoms provide an unequivocal change in function, personality that is clearly noted by others but not severe enough to cause marked impairment.


At least how long does a depressed person need to be ad, down or irritable to the point of causing distress/dysfunction to be diagnosed with major depressive episode?

at least 2 weeks


What is cyclothymia?

chronic hypomania (> 2 years) in adults or at least 1 year in children + minor depression. It's a rare spectrum of bipolar disorder


Explain what's happening to the levels of NTs and monoamine receptors in bipolar disorders.

-increase DA, 5-HT and NE
-monoamine receptors are deficient


What is the Kindling hypothesis

too much neuronal firing in the limbic system.
therefore, can use anti-epilepsy meds for treating bipolar disorder.


Explain gender prevalence differences in bipolar 1 vs bipolar 2

bipolar 1: women = men
bipolar 2: women > men


How come we should try not to use antidepressants for bipolar depression? If it's absolutely necessary, what should be given first?

anti-depressants will cause even more monoamine NTs, which is already a problem causing manias/hypomanias in bipolar patients.

must use mood stabilizer first to help prevent antidepressant from causing increased mania and instability


Some atypical anti-psychotics approved for schizophrenia, have now been approved for treating bipolar depression Why?

They block the dopamine 2 receptor which treats mania or helps prevent it


List some anti-manic agents (mood stabilizers) used in treating bipolar disorders

-lithium: provides Ca2+ membrane stability and promotes neuronal health
-divalproex: increases GABA activity/tone
-carbamazepine: blocks Na+ channels and promotes neuronal health
-atypical antipsychotics: all block D2 receptors