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Flashcards in Adlerian Deck (53):
1

An intervention that
is concise, deliberate, direct, effi cient, focused,
short-term, and purposeful.

Adlerian brief therapy

2

Faulty, self-defeating perceptions,
attitudes, and beliefs that may have been
appropriate at one time but are no longer useful.
These are myths that are infl uential in shaping
personality.

Basic mistakes

3

Adler identifi ed fi ve psychological
positions from which children tend to view life:
oldest, second of only two, middle, youngest, and
only. Actual birth order itself is less important than a person’s interpretation of his or her place
in the family.

Birth order

4


An individual’s awareness
of being part of the human community. Community
feeling embodies the sense of being connected
to all humanity and to being committed
to making the world a better place.


Community feeling

5

Childhood memories (before
the age of 9) of one-time events. People retain
these memories as capsule summaries of
their present philosophy of life. From a series of
____________, it is possible to understand
mistaken notions, present attitudes, social interests,
and possible future behavior.

Early recollections

6

We cannot be understood
in parts; all aspects of ourselves must be understood
in relation to each other.

Holistic concept

7

Another term for fi ctional
fi nalism, which represents an individual’s image
of a goal of perfection.

Guiding self-ideal

8

A congruence between the client’s
and the counselor’s goals and the collaborative
effort of two persons working equally toward
specific, agreed-on goals.

Goal alignment

9

An imagined central goal
that gives direction to behavior and unity to the
personality; an image of what people would be
like if they were perfect and perfectly secure.

Fictional finalism

10

The social and psychological
structure of the family system; includes
birth order, the individual’s perception of self,
sibling characteristics and ratings, and parental
relationships. Each person forms his or her
unique view of self, others, and life through the
_________.

Family constellation

11

The process of increasing
one’s courage to face life tasks; used throughout
therapy as a way to counter discouragement and
to help people set realistic goals.

Encouragement

12

Adler’s original name
for his approach that stressed understanding the
whole person, how all dimensions of a person
are interconnected, and how all these dimensions
are unifi ed by the person’s movement toward
a life goal.

Individual psychology

13

The early determining
force in behavior; the source of human striving
and the wellspring of creativity. Humans
attempt to compensate for both imagined and
real inferiorities, which helps them overcome
handicaps.

Inferiority feelings

14

An individual’s way of thinking, feeling,
and acting; a conceptual framework by which
the world is perceived and by which people are
able to cope with life tasks; the person’s personality

Style of life

15

A strong inclination
toward becoming competent, toward mastering
the environment, and toward self-improvement.
The striving for perfection is a
movement toward enhancement of self.

Striving for superiority

16

A sense of identifi cation with
humanity; a feeling of belonging; an interest in
the common good.

Social interest

17

The phase of the counseling
process in which clients are helped to discover
a new and more functional perspective and are
encouraged to take risks and make changes in
their lives.

Reorientation

18

Basic convictions and assumptions
of the individual that underlie the lifestyle
pattern and explain how behaviors fi t together to
provide consistency.

Private logic

19

A special form of awareness that
facilitates a meaningful understanding within
the therapeutic relationship and acts as a foundation
for change.

Insight

20

Focus on the
way people perceive their world. For Adlerians,
objective reality is less important than how people
interpret reality and the meanings they attach
to what they experience.

Phenomenological approach

21

Adlerians seek basic information
about the client’s life as a part of the
lifestyle assessment process.

Objective interview

22

The process of gathering
early memories, which involves learning to understand
the goals and motivations of the client.

Lifestyle assessment

23

The core beliefs and assumptions
through which the person organizes his or her
reality and fi nds meaning in life events. Our perceptions
of self, others, and the world. Our characteristic
way of thinking, acting, feeling, living,
and striving toward long-term goals.

Lifestyle

24

Universal problems in human life,
including the tasks of friendship (community),
work (a division of labor), and intimacy (love
and marriage).

Life tasks

25

Understanding clients’ underlying
motives for behaving the way they do in the
here and now.

Interpretation

26


Used in an initial assessment to
gain understanding of the purpose that symptoms
or actions have in a person’s life. The question
is, “How would your life be different, and what
would you do differently, if you did not have this
symptom or problem?”

The question

27

The process whereby
the counselor helps clients tell their life story as
completely as possible.

Subjective interview

28

Adlerian therapy is well suited to a
brief or time-limited approach.

true

29

Adler chose the name Individual
Psychology for his theoretical
approach because he wanted to
avoid reductionism.

true

30

Striving for superiority is seen as a
neurotic manifestation.

false

31

Adler maintains that our style of life
is not set until middle age.

false

32

Adlerian therapy is flexible, and it
can be tailored to work with culturally
diverse clients.

true

33

Adlerian counselors do not make interpretations.

false

34

Adlerians place relatively little importance
on the quality of the client–
therapist relationship.

false

35

Assessment is a basic part of the
counseling process.

true

36

Insight is best defined as understanding
translated into action.

true

37

Adlerians believe childhood experiences
in themselves are the decisive
factor in shaping personality.

false

38

According to Adler, childhood experiences
a. are not relevant to the practice
of counseling.
b. determine the adult personality.
c. passively shape us.
d. in themselves are not as crucial
as our attitude toward these experiences.
e. are only necessary to discuss in
the initial session.

D

39

The Adlerian point of view toward
the role of insight in therapy is best
stated in this way:
a. Insight is a prerequisite to any
personality change.
b. To be of value, insight must be
translated into a constructive
action program.
c. People will not make changes
until they know the precise
causes of their personality
problems.
d. Emotional insight must precede
intellectual insight.
e. Cognitive understanding is absolutely
essential before signifi cant
behavior changes can occur.

B

40


13. Which of the following statements is
not true as it is applied to Adlerian
therapy?
a. Consciousness, not the unconscious,
is the center of
personality.
b. The approach is grounded on the
medical model.
c. It is a phenomenological and
humanistic orientation.
d. Feelings of inferiority can be the
wellspring of creativity.
e. Early infl uences can predispose
the child to a faulty lifestyle.

B

41

Adler linked the recognition of inferiority
feelings with striving for
perfection or mastery. This notion is
best captured by the saying
a. A goal without a plan is just a wish.
b. Goals are dreams with deadlines.
c. Life is what happens to you while
you’re busy making other plans.
d. Inferiority and the quest for mastery
are two sides of the same coin.
e. Success is not permanent. The
same is also true of failure.

D

42

The lifestyle assessment includes
information based on
a. the family constellation.
b. early recollections.
c. dreams.
d. mistaken, self-defeating perceptions.
e. all of the above.

E

43

Which is the correct sequence of
human experiencing from an
Adlerian perspective?
a. First we feel, then we think, then
we act.
b. First we act, then we feel, then
we think.
c. First we think, then we feel, then
we act.
d. First we feel, then we act, then
we think.

C

44

Adlerians could best be described as
using which techniques?
a. They use strictly cognitive
techniques.
b. They use emotive and behavioral
techniques to get people to think.
c. They are bound by a clear set of
therapeutic techniques.
d. They fit a variety of techniques
to the needs of each client.
e. They have an aversion to using
techniques because they see the
therapeutic relationship alone as
the healing factor.

D

45

How would the Adlerian therapist
view the personal problems of clients?
a. as the result of cultural conditioning
b. as the end result of a process of
discouragement
c. as living with problem-saturated
stories
d. as the product of our innate
tendencies toward selfdestruction

B

46

Which of the following is not one
of the four phases of the Adlerian
therapeutic process?
a. establishing the proper therapeutic
relationship
b. teaching the client the process of
free association
c. conducting a comprehensive
psychological assessment
d. encouraging the development of
self-understanding
e. reorientation and reeducation

B

47

Which term does not fit Adlerian
therapy?
a. holistic
b. social
c. teleological
d. deterministic
e. phenomenological

D

48

Which of the following does Adler
not stress?
a. the unity of personality
b. biological and instinctual drives
c. direction in which people are
headed
d. unique style of life that is an expression
of life goals
e. feelings of inferiority

B

49

The phenomenological orientation
pays attention to the
a. events that occur at various
stages of life.
b. manner in which biological and
environmental forces limit us.
c. way in which people interact
with each other.
d. internal dynamics that drive a
person.
e. way in which individuals perceive
their world.

E

50

The concept of fictional finalism
refers to
a. an imagined central goal that
guides a person’s behavior.
b. the hopeless stance that leads to
personal defeat.
c. the manner in which people
express their need to belong.
d. the process of assessing one’s
style of life.
e. the interpretation that individuals
give to life events.

A

51

Adlerians consider which factor(s) to
be influential in an individual’s life?
a. psychological position in the
family
b. birth order
c. interactions among siblings
d. parent–child relationships
e. all of the above

E

52

Adlerians value early recollections
as an important clue to the understanding
of
a. one’s sexual and aggressive
instincts.
b. the bonding process between
mother and child.
c. the individual’s lifestyle.
d. the unconscious dynamics that
motivate behavior.
e. the origin of psychological
trauma in early childhood

C

53

The climate of relationships
among family members.

Family atmosphere