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Flashcards in CHAPTER 9 BEHAVIOR THERAPY Deck (73):
1

This model of behavior posits that
behavior (B) is influenced by some particular
events that precede it, called antecedents (A),
and by certain events that follow it called consequences
(C).

ABC model

2

A process involving receiving our
present experience without judgment or preference,
but with curiosity and gentleness, and striving
for full awareness of the present moment.

Acceptance

3


A mindfulness-based program that encourages
clients to accept, rather than attempt to control
or change, unpleasant sensations.

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)

4

A social skills
program designed for individuals who have trouble
with aggressive behavior.

Anger management training

5

Ones that cue or elicit a certain
behavior.
Applied behavior analysis Another term for
behavior modification; this approach seeks to
understand the causes of behavior and address
these causes by changing antecedents and consequences.

Antecedent events

6

A set of techniques that involves
behavioral rehearsal, coaching, and learning
more effective social skills; specific skills
training procedures used to teach people ways
to express both positive and negative feelings
openly and directly.

Assertion training

7

Questioning that enables
the therapist to identify the particular antecedent
and consequent events that infl uence or are functionally
related to an individual’s behavior.

Assessment interview

8

The conceptual framework of
multimodal therapy, based on the premise that
human personality can be understood by assessing
seven major areas of functioning: behavior,
affective responses, sensations, images, cognitions,
interpersonal relationships, and drugs/
biological functions.

BASIC I.D.

9

A therapeutic approach
that deals with analyzing and modifying
human behavior.

Behavior modification

10

A technique consisting of
trying out in therapy new behaviors (performing
target behaviors) that are to be used in everyday
situations.

Behavior rehearsal

11

This approach refers to the
application of diverse techniques and procedures,
which are supported by empirical evidence.

Behavior therapy

12

Identifying the maintaining
conditions by systematically gathering
information about situational antecedents, the
dimensions of the problem behavior, and the
consequences of the problem.

Behavioral analysis

13

A set of procedures
used to get information that will guide the development
of a tailor-made treatment plan for
each client and help measure the effectiveness of
treatment.

Behavioral assessment

14

Also known as Pavlovian
conditioning and respondent conditioning. A
form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is
repeatedly paired with a stimulus that naturally
elicits a particular response. The result is that
eventually the neutral stimulus alone elicits the
response.

Classical conditioning

15

An approach
that blends both cognitive and behavioral
methods to bring about change. (The term CBT
has largely replaced the term “behavior therapy,”
due to the increasing emphasis on the interaction
among affective, behavioral, and cognitive
dimensions.)

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)

16


Procedures aimed at teaching clients specifi c skills
to deal effectively with problematic situations.

Cognitive behavioral coping skills therapy

17

Internal events such as
thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, and self-statements.

Cognitive processes

18

Events that take place as a result
of a specifi c behavior being performed.

Consequences

19

Written agreement
between a client and another person that specifi
es the relationship between performing target
behaviors and their consequences.

Contingency contracting

20

A blend
of behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques
aimed at treating borderline personality disorders;
primarily developed by Marsha Linehan.

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)

21

Therapeutic interventions that have empirical evidence to support their use.

Evidence-based treatments

22

Treatment for fears and
other negative emotional responses by carefully
exposing clients to situations or events contributing
to such problems.

Exposure therapies

23

When a previously reinforced behavior
is no longer followed by the reinforcing
consequences, the result is a decrease in the frequency
of the behavior in the future.

Extinction

24

An exposure-based therapy that
involves imaginal fl ooding, cognitive restructuring,
and the use of rhythmic eye movements and
other bilateral stimulation to treat traumatic
stress disorders and fearful memories of clients.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
(EMDR)

25

Prolonged and intensive in vivo or
imaginal exposure to highly anxiety-evoking
stimuli without the opportunity to avoid or escape
from them.

Flooding

26

The process of systematically
generating information on the events
preceding and following the behavior in an attempt
to determine which antecedents and consequences
are associated with the occurrence of
the behavior.

Functional assessment

27

Brief and graduated
exposure to an actual fear situation or event.

In vivo desensitization

28

Involves client exposure to
actual anxiety-evoking events rather than merely
imagining these situations.

In vivo exposure

29

Intense and prolonged exposure
to the actual anxiety-producing stimuli.

In vivo fl ooding

30

A process that involves becoming
increasingly observant and aware of external
and internal stimuli in the present moment and
adopting an open attitude toward accepting what
is, rather than judging the current situation.

Mindfulness

31


A comprehensive integration of the principles
and skills of mindfulness applied to the treatment
of depression.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)

32


This program applies mindfulness techniques to
coping with stress and promoting physical and
psychological health.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)

33

Learning through observation and
imitation.

Modeling

34

A model endorsing technical
eclecticism; uses procedures drawn from
various sources without necessarily subscribing
to the theories behind these techniques; developed
by Arnold Lazarus.

Multimodal therapy

35

A reinforcing stimulus
is removed following the behavior to decrease
the frequency of a target behavior.

Negative punishment

36

The termination or
withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus as a result
of performing some desired behavior.

Negative reinforcement

37

A type of learning in
which behaviors are influenced mainly by the
consequences that follow them.

Operant conditioning

38

An aversive stimulus
is added after the behavior to decrease the frequency
of a behavior.

Positive punishment

39

A form of conditioning
whereby the individual receives something
desirable as a consequence of his or her behavior;
a reward that increases the probability of its
recurrence.

Positive reinforcement

40

An event whose presentation
increases the probability of a response
that it follows.

Positive reinforcement

41

A method of
teaching people to cope with the stresses produced
by daily living. It is aimed at achieving muscle
and mental relaxation and is easily learned.

Progressive muscle relaxation

42

The process in which a behavior
is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease
in the future probability of a behavior.

Punishment

43

A specifi ed event that strengthens
the tendency for a response to be repeated. It
involves some kind of reward or the removal of
an aversive stimulus following a response.

Reinforcement

44

A basic assumption is
that people are capable of self-directed behavior
change and the person is the agent of change.

Self-directed behavior

45

An individual’s belief or expectation
that he or she can master a situation and
bring about desired change.

Self-effi cacy

46

Strategies in self-management
programs include self-monitoring, selfreward,
self-contracting, and stimulus control.

Self-management

47

A collection of cognitive behavioral
strategies based on the idea that change
can be brought about by teaching people to use
coping skills in various problematic situations.

Self-modifi cation

48

The process of observing
one’s own behavior patterns as well as one’s
interactions in various social situations.

Self-monitoring

49

1. Operant conditioning was mainly
developed by B. F. Skinner.

t

50

T F 2. Behavior therapists look to current
environmental events that maintain
problem behaviors and help clients
produce behavior change by changing
environmental contingencies.

t

51

T F 3. The emphasis of contemporary behavior
therapy is on evidence-based
treatments.

f

52

T F 4. Acceptance and commitment therapy
(ACT) is based on helping clients
control or change unpleasant
sensations and thoughts.

t

53

T F 5. Behavioral techniques can be effectively
incorporated into a group
counseling format.

f

54

T F 6. Typically, the goals of the therapeutic
process are determined by the
therapist.

f

55

T F 7. Behavior therapists tend to be active
and directive, and they function
as consultants and problem solvers.

t

56

T F 8. Multimodal therapy consists of a series
of techniques that are used with
all clients in much the same way.

f

57

T F 9. Relaxation training has benefi ts in
areas such as preparing patients
for surgery, teaching clients how to
cope with chronic pain, and reducing
the frequency of migraine attacks.

t

58

T F 10. A program of behavioral change
should begin with a comprehensive
assessment of the client.

t

59

11. Behavior therapy is grounded on
a. the psychodynamic aspects of a
person.
b. the principles of learning.
c. a philosophical view of the
human condition.
d. the events of the fi rst 5 years of life.

b

60

12. Mindfulness and acceptance-based
approaches
a. have received empirical support
as an effective form of therapy.
b. have no legitimate place in behavior
therapy.
c. have no research evidence to
support the value of the techniques
used.
d. are a part of traditional behavior
therapy.
e. have not yet been accepted into
the behavioral tradition.

a

61

13. In behavior therapy it is generally
agreed that
a. the therapist should decide the
treatment goals.
b. the client should decide the
treatment goals.
c. goals of therapy are the same for
all clients.
d. goals are not necessary.

b

62

14. Which is not true as it is applied to
behavior therapy?
a. Insight is necessary for behavior
change to occur.
b. Therapy should focus on behavior
change and not attitude
change.
c. Therapy is not complete unless
actions follow verbalizations.
d. A good working relationship
between client and therapist is
necessary for behavior change to
occur.

a

63

15. According to most behavior therapists,
a good working relationship
between client and therapist is
a. a necessary and suffi cient condition
for behavior change to
occur.
b. a necessary, but not suffi cient,
condition for behavior change to
occur.
c. neither a necessary nor a suffi
cient condition for behavior
change to occur.

b

64

16. Applied behavior analysis makes
use of
a. classical conditioning techniques.
b. operant conditioning techniques.
c. cognitive behavioral techniques.
d. all of the above.
e. none of the above.

b

65

17. Mindfulness practices rely on
a. positive reinforcement.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. didactic instruction.
d. high intellectual abilities.
e. experiential learning and client
discovery.

e

66

18. Dialectical behavior therapy
a. has no empirical support for its
validity.
b. is a promising blend of behavioral
and psychoanalytic techniques.
c. is a long-term therapy for treating
depression.
d. is a form of operant conditioning.
e. is a form of classical conditioning.

b

67

19. Which is not true of dialectical behavior
therapy (DBT)?
a. DBT was formulated for treating
borderline personality disorders.
b. DBT emphasizes the importance
of the client–therapist relationship.
c. DBT incorporates mindfulness
training and Zen practices.
d. DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts
and behavioral techniques.
e. DBT relies on empirical data to
support its effectiveness.

d

68

20. An exposure-based procedure that
involves imaginal flooding, cognitive
restructuring, and the induction
of rapid, rhythmic eye movements
aimed at treatment of traumatic experiences
is called
a. fl ooding.
b. in vivo desensitization.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. relaxation training.
e. eye movement desensitization
and reprocessing.

e

69

21. Prolonged/intense exposure—either
in real life or in imagination—to
highly anxiety-evoking stimuli is
called
a. self-management training.
b. in vivo desensitization.
c. systematic desensitization.
d. fl ooding.
e. eye movement desensitization
and reprocessing.

d

70

22. A limitation of traditional behavior
therapy is its
a. lack of research to evaluate the
effectiveness of techniques.
b. de-emphasis on the role of feelings
in therapy.
c. lack of clear concepts on which
to base practice.
d. disregard for the client–therapist
relationship.
e. overemphasis on early childhood
experiences.

b

71

23. Contemporary behavior therapy
places emphasis on
a. the interplay between the individual
and the environment.
b. helping clients acquire insight
into the causes of their problems.
c. a phenomenological approach to
understanding the person.
d. encouraging clients to reexperience
unfi nished business with
signifi cant others by role-playing
with them in the present.
e. working through the transference
relationship with the therapist.

a

72

24. Which is not true as it applies to
multimodal therapy?
a. Therapeutic fl exibility and versatility
are valued highly.
b. Therapists adjust their procedures
to effectively achieve the
client’s goals in therapy.
c. Great care is taken to fi t the client
to a predetermined type of
treatment.
d. The approach encourages technical
eclecticism.
e. The therapist makes a comprehensive
assessment of the client’s
level of functioning at the outset
of therapy.

c

73

25. Which of the following is not considered
one of the basic characteristics
of contemporary behavior
therapy?
a. Experimentally derived principles
of learning are systemati-cally applied
to help people change their
maladaptive behaviors.
b. Emphasis is on using evidencebased
treatment interventions.
c. The focus is on assessing overt
and covert behavior directly,
identifying the problem, and
evaluating change.
d. The therapy is an experiential
and insight-oriented approach.
e. There is an attempt to develop
culture-specifi c procedures and
obtain clients’ adherence and
cooperation in a treatment
program.

d