Flashcards in CHAPTER 7 PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY Deck (42):
The act of perceiving accurately the internal frame of reference of another; the ability to grasp the person’s
subjective world without losing one’s own identity.
Accurate empathic understanding
A growth force within us; a directional process of striving toward selfregulation, self-determination, realization, fulfi
llment, perfection, and inner freedom; the basison which people can be trusted to identify and
resolve their own problems in a therapeutic relationship.
The state in which self-experiences
are accurately symbolized in the self-concept.
As applied to the therapist, congruence is
matching one’s inner experiencing with external
expressions; congruence is a quality of realness
or genuineness of the therapist.
Rooted in a personcentered
philosophy, EFT is integrative in that it
synthesizes aspects of Gestalt therapy and existential
therapy. Strategies used in EFT are aimed
at strengthening the self, regulating affect, and
creating new meaning.
A deep and subjective understanding
of the client with the client.
An approach that
makes use of various arts—such as movement,
drawing, painting, sculpting, music, and improvisation—
in a supportive setting for the purpose
of growth and healing.
Expressive arts therapy
We are able to strive toward
self-actualization only after these four
basic needs are met: physiological, safety, love,
Hierarchy of needs
Addressing what is going on
between the client and therapist right now.
) A humanistic, client-centered, psychosocial, directive
counseling approach that was developed by
William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick in the
Motivational Interviewing (MI
A movement that has
come into prominence, which shares many concepts
on the healthy side of human existence
with the humanistic approach.
The central theme of the
work of Abraham Maslow. His theory of selfactualization
is postulated on a hierarchy of needs
as a source of motivation.
People are assumed to progress
through a series of five identifiable stages
of motivation and readiness to change in the
counseling process. They include the precontemplation
stage, the contemplation stage, the
preparation stage, the action stage, and the
Stages of change
It is essential that therapists
function within the spirit of MI, rather than simply
applying the strategies of the approach. The
attitudes and skills in MI are based on a personcentered
The MI spirit
and suffi cient characteristics of the therapeutic
relationship for client change to occur. These
core conditions include therapist congruence
(or genuineness), unconditional positive regard
(acceptance and respect), and accurate empathic
Therapeutic core conditions
An alternative to
psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches;
under this heading are the experiential and relationship-
oriented therapies (existential therapy,
person-centered therapy, and Gestalt therapy).
“Third force” in therapy
expression of fundamental respect for
the person as a human; acceptance of a person’s
right to his or her feelings.
Unconditional positive regard
1. Person-centered therapy is best described
as a completed and fixed
“school,” or model, of therapy.
T F 2. Diagnosis of clients is seen as an important
beginning point for therapy.
T F 3. A major contribution of this approach
has been the willingness of
Rogers to state his formulations
as testable hypotheses and submit
them to research.
T F 4. The person-centered approach to
group counseling is based on the assumption
that the group members
have the resourcefulness for positive
movement without the facilitator
of the group assuming an active
and directive role.
T F 5. Directive procedures are called
for when clients feel that they are
“stuck” in therapy.
6. Natalie Rogers expanded on her father’s
theory of creativity using the
expressive arts to enhance personal
growth for individuals and groups.
T F 7. Motivational interviewing rests on
the therapeutic core conditions;
however, it offers a range of strategies
that enable clients to develop
action plans leading to change.
T F 8. A limitation of this approach is that
it is a long-term process.
T F 9. Methods of Natalie Rogers’s expressive
arts therapy are based on psychoanalytic
T F 10. Motivational interviewing is deliberately
directive and is aimed at reducing
client ambivalence about change
and increasing intrinsic motivation.
11. In person-centered group counseling,
the role of the counselor is best
described as a
c. skilled group technician.
12. Person-centered therapy is a form of
b. humanistic therapy.
c. behavioral therapy.
d. cognitive-oriented therapy.
e. both (c) and (d).
13. Which of the following is considered
important in person-centered
a. accurate diagnosis
b. accurate therapist interpretation
c. therapeutic experiments
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
14. Congruence refers to the therapist’s
b. empathy for clients.
c. positive regard.
d. respect for clients.
e. judgmental attitude.
15. In person-centered therapy, transference
a. a necessary, but not suffi cient,
condition of therapy.
b. a core part of the therapeutic
c. a neurotic distortion.
d. a result of ineptness on the therapist’s
e. not an essential or signifi cant
factor in the therapy process.
16. Emotion-focused therapy
a. is rooted in a person-centered
b. incorporates aspects of Gestalt
therapy into the process.
c. incorporates aspects of existential
therapy into the process.
d. both a and b.
e. all of the above.
17. Accurate empathic understanding
refers to the therapist’s ability to
a. accurately diagnose the client’s
b. objectively understand the dynamics
of a client.
c. like and care for the client.
d. sense the inner world of the
client’s subjective experience.
18. Which technique(s) is (are) most
often used in the person-centered
a. questioning and probing
b. analysis of resistance
c. free association
d. active listening and refl ection
19. Which statement is most true of
a. Therapists should be judgmental
b. Therapists should direct the
session when clients are silent
c. The skill a therapist possesses is
more important than his or her
attitude toward a client.
d. The techniques a therapist uses
are less important than are his
or her attitudes.
20. In what stage of change do individuals
intend to take action immediately
and report some small
21. One strength of the person-centered
approach is that
a. it offers a wide range of cognitive
techniques to change behavior.
b. it teaches clients ways to explore
the meaning of dreams.
c. it emphasizes reliving one’s early
d. therapists have the latitude to
develop their own counseling
e. clients are given a concrete plan
22. A limitation of the person-centered
approach is a
a. lack of research conducted on
b. tendency for practitioners to
give support without challenging
clients suffi ciently.
c. lack of attention to the therapeutic
d. failure to allow clients to choose
23. Rogers made a contribution to
a. developing the humanistic movement
b. pioneering research in the process
and outcomes of therapy.
c. fostering world peace.
d. pioneering the encounter-group
e. all of the above.
24. As a result of experiencing personcentered
therapy, it is hypothesized
that the client will move toward
b. an internal source of evaluation.
c. being more open to experience.
d. a willingness to continue growing.
e. all of the above.
25. Unconditional positive regard refers
a. feeling a sense of liking for clients.
b. accepting clients as worthy persons.
c. approving of clients’ behavior.
d. agreeing with clients’ values.
e. accepting clients if they meet the