Flashcards in CHAPTER 4 PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY Deck (98):
The second stage of psychosexual
development, when pleasure is derived from retaining
and expelling feces.
An elaborate explanation
of human nature that combines ideas from
history, mythology, anthropology, and religion.
The biological and psychological
aspects of masculinity and femininity,
which are thought to coexist in both sexes.
A feeling of impending doom that
results from repressed feelings, memories, desires,
and experiences emerging to the surface of
awareness. From a psychoanalytic perspective,
there are three kinds of ______: reality, neurotic,
and moral _____.
The images of universal experiences
contained in the collective unconscious
An anonymous stance assumed
by classical psychoanalysts aimed at fostering
characterized by instability, irritability, selfdestructive
acts, impulsivity, and extreme mood
shifts. Such people lack a sense of their own
identity and do not have a deep understanding
Borderline personality disorder
adaptation of the principles of psychoanalytic
theory and therapy aimed at treating selective
disorders within a preestablished time limit.
Brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT)
(Freudian) approach to psychoanalysis based on
a long-term exploration of past confl icts, many
of which are unconscious, and an extensive process
of working through early wounds.
From a Jungian perspective,
the deepest level of the psyche that contains
an accumulation of inherited experiences.
An ego-defense mechanism
that consists of masking perceived weaknesses
or developing certain positive traits to make up
of psychoanalytic theory that share some
core characteristics of classical analytic theory, but
with different applications of techniques; extensions
and adaptations of orthodox psychoanalysis.
The therapist’s unconscious
emotional responses to a client that are
likely to interfere with objectivity; unresolved
confl icts of the therapist that are projected onto
According to Erikson, a turning point in
life when we have the potential to move forward
or to regress. At these turning points, we can
either resolve our confl icts or fail to master the
A Freudian concept that refers
to a tendency of individuals to harbor an unconscious
wish to die or hurt themselves or others;
accounts for the aggressive drive.
In ______ there is an effort to suppress
unpleasant reality. It consists of coping with
anxiety by “closing our eyes” to the existence of
of cognitive behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques
that generally involves a minimum of one
year of treatment.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
An ego-defense mechanism that
entails redirection of some emotion from a real
source to a substitute person or object
A technique for uncovering
unconscious material and giving clients insight
into some of their unresolved problems. Therapists
participate with clients in exploring dreams
and in interpreting possible meanings.
The process by which the latent
content of a dream is transformed into the less
threatening manifest content.
The part of the personality that is the mediator
between external reality and inner demands.
that operate unconsciously to protect the
person from threatening and, therefore, anxietyproducing
thoughts, feelings, and impulses.
The psychosocial approach
of Erik Erikson, which emphasizes the development
of the ego or self at various stages of life.
The condition of being arrested, or
“stuck,” at one level of psychosexual development.
A primary technique, consisting
of spontaneous and uncensored verbalization
by the client, which gives clues to the
nature of the client’s unconscious confl icts.
The fi nal stage of psychosexual
development, usually attained at adolescence, in
which heterosexual interests and activities are
A theory stating that instincts
and intrapsychic confl icts are the basic factors
shaping personality development (both normal
The part of personality, present at birth, that
is blind, demanding, and insistent. Its function is
to discharge tension and return to homeostasis.
As an ego defense, this may involve
individuals identifying themselves with
successful causes in the hope that they will be
seen as worthwhile.
A developmental challenge, occurring
during adolescence, whereby the person
seeks to establish a stable view of self and to defi
ne a place in life.
The dream as it appears to
Refers to a
range of procedures, such as an analyst’s anonymity,
regularity, and consistency of meetings,
as a structure for therapy.
Maintaining the analytic frame
Our hidden, symbolic, and unconscious
motives, wishes, and fears.
The instinctual drives of the id and the
source of psychic energy; Freudian notion of the
Instincts oriented toward
growth, development, and creativity that serve
the purpose of the survival of the individual and
the human race.
The harmonious integration of the
conscious and unconscious aspects of personality.
A technique used to explore
the meanings of free association, dreams, resistances,
and transference feelings.
A process of taking in the values
and standards of others.
The fear of one’s own conscience;
people with a well-developed conscience
tend to feel guilty when they do something contrary
to their moral code.
A process whereby
group members develop intense feelings for certain
others in a group; an individual may “see” in
others some signifi cant fi gure such as a parent,
life-partner, ex-lover, or boss.
Extreme self-love, as opposed to
love of others. A narcissistic personality is characterized
by a grandiose and exaggerated sense
of self-importance and an exploitive attitude toward
others, which hides a poor self-concept.
The fear that the instincts
will get out of hand and cause one to do something
for which one will be punished.
as they are represented intrapsychically.
An ego-defense mechanism that
involves attributing our own unacceptable
thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and motives to
The idea that the id is
driven to satisfy instinctual needs by reducing
tension, avoiding pain, and gaining pleasure.
The third phase of psychosexual
development, during which the child gains maximum
gratification through direct experience
with the genitals.
The mask we wear, or public face we
present, as a way to protect ourselves.
The initial phase of psychosexual
development, during which the mouth is the primary
source of gratifi cation; a time when the infant
is learning to trust or mistrust the world.
A newer version of
psychoanalytic thinking, which focuses on predictable
developmental sequences in which early
experiences of self shift in relation to an expanding
awareness of others. It holds that individuals
go through phases of autism, normal symbiosis,
and separation and individuation, culminating
in a state of integration.
as they are represented intrapsychically.
oriented psychotherapy involves a shortening
and simplifying of the lengthy process of
An ego-defense mechanism
whereby we attempt to justify our behavior by
imputing logical motives to it.
Erikson’s turning points,
from infancy through old age. Each presents
psychological and social tasks that must be mastered
if maturation is to proceed in a healthy
The Freudian chronological
phases of development, beginning in infancy.
Each is characterized by a primary way of gaining
sensual and sexual gratifi cation.
The interplay of opposing
forces and intrapsychic confl icts that provide a
basis for understanding human motivation.
A defense against a
threatening impulse, involving actively expressing
the opposite impulse.
Relational analysis An analytic model based
on the assumption that therapy is an interactive
process between client and therapist. The interpersonal
analyst assumes that countertransference
is a source of information about the client’s
character and dynamics.
The fear of danger from the
external world; the level of such anxiety is proportionate
to the degree of real threat.
An ego-defense mechanism
whereby an individual reverts to a less mature
form of behavior as a way of coping with extreme
The idea that the ego does
realistic and logical thinking and formulates
plans of action for satisfying needs.
A model that characterizes
therapy as an interactive process between client
and therapist in which countertransference provides
an important source of information about
the client’s character and dynamics.
A theory that emphasizes how
we use interpersonal relationships (self objects)
to develop our own sense of self.
The client’s reluctance to bring to
awareness threatening unconscious material
that has been repressed.
The ego-defense mechanism
whereby threatening or painful thoughts or feelings
are excluded from awareness.
A Jungian archetype representing
thoughts, feelings, and actions that we tend to
disown by projecting them outward.
An ego defense that involves diverting
sexual or aggressive energy into other
channels that are socially acceptable.
The client’s unconscious shifting
to the therapist of feelings and fantasies, both
positive and negative, that are displacements
from reactions to signifi cant others from the client’s
Through this form of psychoanalytically oriented
therapy, clients gain a sense of what it is like to interact
more fully and fl exibly within the therapy
situation. They are helped to apply to the outside
world what they are learning in the offi ce.
Time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP)
That aspect of personality that represents
one’s moral training. It strives for perfection,
The transfer of
feelings originally experienced in an early relationship
to other important people in a person’s
That aspect of psychological
functioning or of personality that houses experiences,
wishes, impulses, and memories in an
out-of-awareness state as a protection against
A process of resolving basic
confl icts that are manifested in the client’s relationship
with the therapist; achieved by the repetition
of interpretations and by exploring forms
1. The psychosocial perspective is not
at all compatible with the psychosexual
view of development.
2. Children who do not experience
the opportunity to differentiate self
from others may later develop a
narcissistic personality disorder
3. The contemporary trends in psychoanalytic
theory are refl ected in objectrelations
theory, the self psychology
model, and the relational model.
4. Brief psychodynamic therapists assume
a neutral therapeutic stance
as a way to promote transference.
5. Analytic therapy is oriented toward
6. Working through is achieved almost
totally by catharsis, including getting
out deeply buried emotions.
7. From the Freudian perspective,
resistance is typically a conscious
8. The contemporary psychoanalytic
approaches place emphasis on the
unconscious, the role of transference
and countertransference, and
the importance of early life experiences.
9. Object-relations theorists focus on
symbiosis, separation, differentiation,
10. In object-relations theory there is
an emphasis on early development
as a decisive factor infl uencing later
11. Who of the following is not considered
an object-relations theorist?
a. Heinz Kohut
b. Margaret Mahler
c. Otto Kernberg
d. Erik Erikson
12. Which of the following is not considered
a contemporary psychoanalytic
a. object-relations theory
b. self psychology
c. relational psychoanalysis
d. classical psychoanalysis
13. Which of the following is not a
characteristic of the newer psychoanalytic
a. Emphasis is on the origins,
transformations, and organizational
functions of the self.
b. The contrasting experiences of
others is highlighted.
c. People are classifi ed as compliant,
aggressive, or detached types.
d. Focus is on the differentiations
between and integration of the
self and others.
e. Early development is seen as
critical to understanding later
14. All of the following are concepts
developed by Carl Jung except
a. the shadow.
b. normal infantile autism.
c. animus and anima.
d. collective unconscious.
15. According to Erikson’s psychosocial
view, the struggle between industry
and inferiority occurs during
b. old age.
c. school age.
e. middle age.
16. Erikson’s preschool-age phase corresponds
to which Freudian stage?
17. Which term refers to the repetition
of interpretations and the overcoming
of resistance so that clients can
resolve neurotic patterns?
a. working through
e. acting out
18. Analysis of transference is central
to psychoanalysis because it
a. keeps the therapist hidden and
thus feeling secure.
b. allows clients to relive their past
in therapy and to gain insight.
c. helps clients formulate specifi c
plans to change behavior.
d. is considered the only way to get
at unconscious material.
e. is the best way to understand
19. In brief psychodynamic therapy
(BPT) the therapist
a. assumes a nondirective and even
b. deals exclusively with a single
c. assumes an active role in quickly
formulating a therapeutic focus
that goes beyond the surface of
d. avoids treating any underlying
20. With respect to applying the psychoanalytic
approach to group counseling,
which statement(s) is (are) true?
a. In psychodynamic therapy
groups, members re-create their
social situations, implying that
the group becomes a microcosm
of their everyday lives.
b. Members can profi t from identifying
and exploring their transferences
within the group.
c. Projections onto the therapist and
other members provide a clue to a
member’s unresolved confl icts.
d. One’s ways of relating within the
group provides clues to patterns
outside of the group.
e. all of the above.
21. Borderline and narcissistic disorders
have been given much attention
a. traditional psychoanalysis.
b. Jungian therapy.
c. object-relations theory.
d. Erikson’s developmental
22. During psychoanalytic treatment,
clients are typically asked
a. to monitor their behavioral
changes by keeping a journal
that describes what they do at
home and at work.
b. to make major changes in their
c. not to make radical changes in
d. to give up their friendships.
23. Countertransference refers to
a. the irrational reactions clients
have toward their therapists.
b. the irrational reactions therapists
have toward their clients.
c. the projections of the client.
d. the client’s need to be special in
the therapist’s eyes.
e. all except (a).
24. “Maintaining the analytic framework”
a. the whole range of procedural
factors in the treatment process.
b. the analyst’s relative anonymity.
c. agreement on the payment of fees.
d. the regularity and consistency of
e. all of the above.
25. In psychoanalytic therapy (as opposed
to classical analysis), which
of the following procedures is least
likely to be used?
a. the client lying on the couch
b. working with transference
c. relating present struggles with
d. working with dreams
e. interpretation of resistance
A period of ,
following the phallic stage, that is relatively
calm before the storm of adolescence