Flashcards in Chapter 1 0 Cognitive Behavior Therapy Deck (60):
of antecedents, behavior, and consequences.
The theory that people’s problems do
not stem from activating events but, rather, from
their beliefs about such events. Thus, the best
route to changing problematic emotions is to
change one’s beliefs about situations.
A-B-C model of personality
A form of cognitive distortion
that refers to making conclusions without
supporting and relevant evidence.
that appear to arise reflexively, without conscious
A therapeutic approach that focuses on changing
the client’s self-verbalizations.
Cognitive behavior modification (CBM)
approach that aims at changing cognitions
that are leading to psychological problems.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
In cognitive therapy, the
client’s misconceptions and faulty assumptions.
Examples include arbitrary inference, selective
abstraction, overgeneralization, magnification
and minimizations, labeling and mislabeling, dichotomous
thinking, and personalization.
A process of actively
altering maladaptive thought patterns and replacing
them with constructive and adaptive
thoughts and beliefs.
The organizing aspect of
thinking, which monitors and directs the choice
of thoughts; implies an “executive processor,”
one that determines when to continue, interrupt,
or change thinking patterns.
An approach and set
of procedures that attempts to change feelings
and behavior by modifying faulty thinking and
Cognitive therapy (CT)
A pattern that triggers depression.
A strategy of viewing
the client as a scientist who is able to make objective
interpretations. The process in which therapist
and client work together to phrase the client’s
faulty beliefs as hypotheses and design homework
so that the client can test these hypotheses.
A recent development
in cognitive therapy that emphasizes the
subjective framework and interpretations of the
client rather than looking to the objective bases
of faulty beliefs.
that focuses on the stories that people tell
about them themselves and others regarding signifi
cant events in their lives.
Constructivist narrative perspective
A behavioral procedure
for helping clients deal effectively with
stressful situations by learning to modify their
Coping skills program
A cognitive error that
involves categorizing experiences in either-or
Erroneous thinking that
disrupts one’s life; can be contradicted by the client’s
objective appraisal of the situation.
Distortion of reality
Carefully designed and agreed
upon assignments aimed at getting clients to
carry out positive actions that induce emotional
and attitudinal change. These assignments are
checked in later sessions, and clients learn effective
ways to dispute self-defeating thinking.
The sentences that people
tell themselves and the debate that often goes on
“inside their head”; a form of self-talk, or inner
An unreasonable conviction
that leads to emotional and behavioral problems.
A term coined by Ellis to refer
to behavior that is absolutist and rigid. We tell
ourselves that we must, should, or ought to do or
A process of holding extreme
beliefs on the basis of a single incident
and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar
events or settings.
A tendency for people to relate
external events to themselves, even when
there is no basis for making this connection.
A theory that is based on the assumption that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact signifi cantly
and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship.
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT
A form of intense
mental practice for learning new emotional
and physical habits. Clients imagine themselves
thinking, feeling, and behaving in exactly the
way they would like to in everyday situations.
Rational emotive imagery
The quality of thinking, feeling,
and acting in ways that will help us attain our
goals. Irrationality consists of thinking, feeling,
and acting in ways that are self-defeating and
that thwart our goals.
Procedure for promoting
long-term maintenance that involves identifying
situations in which clients are likely to regress to
old patterns and to develop coping skills in such
Core beliefs that are centrally related
to dysfunctional behaviors. The process of cognitive
therapy involves restructuring distorted core
A cognitive distortion
that involves forming conclusions based on an
isolated detail of an event.
An approach to therapy
based on the assumption that what people
say to themselves directly infl uences the things
they do. Training consists of learning new selftalk
aimed at coping with problems.
What people “say” to themselves
when they are thinking. The internal dialogue
that goes on within an individual in stressful
A strategy used
in REBT therapy that encourages people to do
things despite a fear of feeling foolish or embarrassed.
The aim of the exercise is to teach people
that they can function effectively even if they
might be perceived as doing foolish acts.
A process that cognitive
therapists use in helping clients empirically
test their core beliefs. Clients form hypotheses
about their behavior through observation and
Individuals are given opportunities
to deal with relatively mild stress
stimuli in successful ways, so that they gradually
develop a tolerance for stronger stimuli.
A form of
cognitive behavior modification developed by
Donald Meichenbaum that is a combination of
information giving, Socratic discussion, cognitive
restructuring, problem solving, relaxation
training, behavioral rehearsals, self-monitoring,
self-instruction, self-reinforcement, and modifying
Stress inoculation training (SIT)
A process whereby
the therapist strives to engage the client’s active
participation in all phases of therapy.
T F 1. REBT makes use of both cognitive
and behavioral techniques, but it
does not use emotive techniques.
T F 2. REBT stresses the importance of
the therapist demonstrating unconditional
positive regard for the
T F 3. Cognitive therapy for depression
was developed by Meichenbaum.
T F 4. A major contribution made by Ellis,
the Becks, and Meichenbaum is
the demystification of the therapy
T F 5. Ellis shares Rogers’s view of the client–
therapist relationship as a condition
for change to occur within
T F 6. Beck developed a procedure known
as stress-inoculation training.
T F 7. To feel worthwhile, human beings
need love and acceptance from signifi
T F 8. Ellis maintains that events themselves
do not cause emotional
disturbances; rather, it is our evaluation
of and beliefs about these
events that cause our problems.
T F 9. A difference between Beck’s cognitive
therapy and Ellis’s REBT is
that Beck places more emphasis on
helping clients discover their misconceptions
for themselves than
T F 10. According to Beck, people become
disturbed when they label and evaluate
themselves by a set of rules
that are unrealistic.
11. Which of the following is not a part
of stress inoculation training?
a. Socratic discovery-oriented
b. relaxation training
c. behavioral rehearsals
e. exception questions
12. REBT is based on the philosophical
assumption that human beings are
a. innately striving for selfactualization.
b. determined by strong unconscious
sexual and aggressive forces.
c. potentially able to think rationally
but have a tendency toward
d. trying to develop a lifestyle to
overcome feelings of basic
e. determined strictly by environmental
13. REBT stresses that human beings
a. think, emote, and behave simultaneously.
b. think without emoting.
c. emote without thinking.
d. behave without emoting or
14. REBT views neurosis as the result of
a. inadequate mothering during
b. failure to fulfi ll our existential
c. excessive feelings.
d. irrational thinking and behaving.
15. In cognitive behavioral group therapy
a. there is some research that
shows that this approach is effective
for treating a wide range
of emotional and behavioral
b. the group leader assumes a
blank screen demeanor so as to
enhance transference feelings of
c. the assumption is that a therapeutic
atmosphere is both necessary
and suffi cient for change to occur.
d. the group leader believes that
using techniques interferes with
the group process.
e. the emphasis is on having members
identify and express feelings.
16. REBT contends that people
a. have a need to be loved and
accepted by everyone.
b. need to be accepted by most
c. will become emotionally sick if
they are rejected.
d. do not need to be accepted and
e. need to be accepted and will become
sick if they are rejected.
17. According to REBT, we develop
emotional disturbances because of
a. a traumatic event.
b. our beliefs about certain events.
c. abandonment by those we depend
on for support.
d. withdrawal of love and acceptance.
18. Meichenbaum’s focuses on
helping clients become aware of
their self-talk and the stories they
tell about themselves.
a. self-instructional training
b. narrative therapy
c. self-awareness conditioning
d. self-talk analysis
e. cognitive behavioral training
19. In cognitive therapy the assumption
is that psychological problems stem
from processes such as
a. faulty thinking.
b. making incorrect inferences on
the basis of inadequate or incorrect
c. failing to distinguish between
fantasy and reality.
d. negative automatic thoughts.
e. all of the above.
20. Cognitive therapy is based on the
a. our feelings determine our
b. our feelings determine our actions.
c. cognitions are the major determinants
of how we feel and act.
d. the best way to change thinking
is to reexperience past emotional
traumas in the here and now.
e. insight is essential for any type
of change to occur.
21. In cognitive therapy techniques are
a. assist clients in substituting
rational beliefs for irrational
b. help clients experience their feelings
c. identify and test clients’ misconceptions
and faulty assumptions.
d. enable clients to deal with their
e. teach clients how to think only
22. The type of cognitive error that involves
thinking and interpreting in
all-or-nothing terms or categorizing
experiences in either-or extremes is
a. magnifi cation and exaggeration.
b. polarized thinking.
c. arbitrary inference.
e. none of the above.
23. Beck’s cognitive therapy differs from
Ellis’s REBT in that Beck emphasizes
a. a Socratic dialogue.
b. helping clients discover their
misconceptions by themselves.
c. working with the client in collaborative
d. more structure in the therapeutic
e. all of the above.
24. Beck’s cognitive therapy has been
most widely applied to the treatment
a. stress symptoms.
b. psychosomatic reactions.
e. cardiovascular disorders.