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Flashcards in Africa Deck (40):

What is Portugal's #1 destination for wine exports?

Angola (a former Portuguese colony)


Which two historical incidents dealt a severe blow to South Africa's wine industry?

The opening of the Suez Canal and the arrival of phylloxera (both in the 1860s).


Which co-op helped sustain the wine industry in South Africa?

KWV (Kooperatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Bpkt)


What is the climate in South Africa?

The interior of the country has a semiarid continental climate and the eastern coast is subtropical and humid, but the southwest around Cape Town is more Meditteranean and well suited to grapegrowing.


What is the most widely planted grape variety in South Africa?

Chenin Blanc - referred to in SA as Steen


What is the most widely planted red variety in South Africa?

Cabernet Sauvignon


Which two grapes is Pinotage a crossing of?

Pinot Noir and Cinsaut (developed almost a century ago at Stellenbosch University)


What is Hanepoot?

The South African name for Muscat of Alexandria


Is Cape Riesling the true German Riesling?

No. it is an obscure French grape that is also grown in Australia (Crouchen Blanc)


What is Cape Riesling called in South Africa?

Weisser Riesling or Rhine Riesling


What is the appellation system in South Africa known as?

(WO) the Wine of Origin scheme


What are the various categories of areas, from largest to smallest, in the WO?

geographical units, regions, districts, wards


Is the WO scheme more like the Old and New world in their geographic delineations?

New World - comprising differing sizes of geographical areas that define place of origin without any specific requirements or major restrictions on the types of wine made there.


What is an estate in South African terms?

One or more neighboring vineyards that are collectively managed as a unit


Who must certify a wine if it is to list a specific place of origin, grape variety, or vintage date on the label?

The South African Wine and Spirit Board


If a wine is to list the geographic area, estate, or vineyard, how much of the grapes must come from that specified area?

100%; if there are multiple locations listed, they must add up to equal 100%


What do wines certified and approved by the South African Wine and Spirit Board receive?

After all requirements are met, and the board has actually sampled the wine to ensure there are no significant flaws, certified wines receive a white paper seal to be affixed across the wine capsule.


What is South Africa's primary geographical unit?

Western Cape


What percentage of vineyard land lies outside the Western Cape? Where is this remaining percentage located?

Only about 5% which is located well insland in the valley of the Orange River in the Northern Cape geographical unit.


Where is Stellenbosch (district) located? What is it known for?

Located just east of Cape Town, it is one of the oldest and most respected winegrowing areas of South Africa. The are'as red wines are well respected.


What is Paarl (district) located? What is the climate like and what does it produce?

Located north of Stellenbosch, this district is a bit warmer than Stellenbosch although it is reasonably close to the ocean (Atlantic). The area is home to some of the more familiar South African brands and produces a full range of wines.


What ward was the first to plant vines in the 1650s? What did this area become famous for?

Constantia; it became famous for its sweet fortified wine, then faded out of existence.


What is currently being planted in Constantia?

South Africa is reviving the area as a winegrowing site, but instead of focusing on sweet fortified wines (as it was once known for), focusing on dry white table wines.


Which ward is defined as "up-and-coming" and located in the hills southeast of Stellenbosch, where the altitude provides cooler temperatures? What varietal does it focus on?

Elgin; it currently produces excellent Sauvignon Blanc.


Which district and ward are in the southernmost part of the country? What is the climate like and what varietals flourish here?

Walker Bay district and Elim ward; subject to winds off the Southern Ocean, and therefore the coolest winegrowing areas of South Africa. This zone is ideal for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.


Which two interior areas are notable for high volume production? What % of the nations grape crop is grown in these two districts?

Worcester and Robertson; approximately 40%


What did the Worcester and Robertson districts used to produce? What are they producing now?

Their wines used to be distilled or fortified, but now more and more is ending up as bulk table wine.


What is the climate like in Worcester and Robertson? What varietals are grown here?

These hinterlands are hot in the summertime and require irrigation, provided by the Breede River. Recently, the share of red grapes such as Shiraz and Cab Sav have grown, but whites continue to dominate.


What four regions are part of the Western Cape?

Coastal Region/Bolberg, Breede River Valley, Olifants River, Klein Karoo


What does the Boberg region consist of?

Boberg is for fortified wines only from Paarl and Tulbagh; other regions in the Coastal Region/Bolberg and Paarl and Tulbagh table wines fall under the Coastal Region.


What 7 named districts are part of the Coastal Region/Boberg?

North to South: Swartland, Tulbagh, Darling, Paarl, Tygerberg, Stellenbosch, Cape Point


What 4 districts are part of the Breede River Valley region?

Breedekloof, Worcester, Robertson, Swellendam


What 3 named districts are located in the Olifants River region?

Lutzville Valley (farthest north) Citrusdal Valley, Citrusdal Mountain (directly east of Citrusdal Valley)


What 2 named districts are located in Klein Karoo?

North to South: Calitzdorp, Langeberg-Garcia


Which district is located in the Northern Cape geographical unit?



Which two major hurdles does North Africa facce when it comes to winemaking?

1) all of North Africa lies within the Muslim world, which is doctrinally opposed to all alcohol. 2) lack of water in the northern fringes of the Sahara Desert and the entire North African coast on the Mediterranean Sea is above the 30th parallel


What three areas is the most active wine production in North Africa found in? What are these three regions collectively called?

Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; collectively known as the Maghreb. These are the areas that were under French control during the early 20th century.


Where does the majority of the grape growing take place in the Maghreb?

Largely confined to the Mediterranean coast and northern mountain slopes where the coolest (least hot..) climatic conditions are found.


Do the three countries in the Maghreb have an appellation system?

Yes. Modeled after the French system, AOC is in effect.


What is the majority of the wine in the Maghreb like? What four grape varieties are among the top?

The majority of the wines are red, typically very high in alcohol and quite low in acidity. Carignan, Grenache, Cinsaut, and Muscat are among the top grape varieties.