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Flashcards in Portugal Deck (57):

What are the primary grapes of Port?

Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Roriz (also known elsewhere in Portugal as Aragonez and everywhere else as Tempranillo)


What is Portugal's most planted grape variety?

The white grape Fernao Pires, also called Maria Gomes, and is found mainly in the south.


What is the most common red variety in Portugal?

Castelao (also known as Periquita)


Castelao (also known as Periquita)

Less than a third


What two white grapes are prominent in Vinho Verde?

Loureiro and Alvarinho (known in Rias Baixas as Loureira and Albarino).


What four grapes are important to Madeira?

Servial, Malvasia, Verdelho (known in Vinho Verde as Gouveio and in Spain as Godello), Boal (or Bual)


What are "lodges" in reference to Port?

The warehouses where Port wines are traditionally aged until ready for shipping.


What is the difference between the Duoro and the Duero?

The Duoro is what the river is called in Portugal and once it extends 60 miles eastward to the Spanish boarder, it becomes the Duero.


What three subregions is the Duoro divided into?

Baixo Corgo, Cima Corgo, and Duoro Superior.


What style of port does the Baixo Corgo make?

In the westernmost section, the Baixo Corgo is a relatively fertile area with ample rainfall that makes mostly lighter styles of Port.


What kind of climate does the Cima Corgo have and what type of port do they produce?

The central core of the Port region, this subzone has steep rocky slopes of schist and granite that have been terraced. It has hot summers, cold winters, less rain than Baixo Corgo and is considered to produced the finest ports.


Where is almost half the port vineyard acreage located?

In the Cima Corgo


What is the climate like in the Duoro Superior?

The upriver, eastern part of the valley with more extreme temperatures than the Cima Corgo and very little rainfall. It is the largest subzone physically but contains less than a quarter of the area under vine for port.


What are the 6 preferred varieties for Port production?

Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo), Tinta Barroca, Tinta Cao, and Tinta Amarela (also known as Trincadeira)


What are the two predominant varieties for white Port?

Malvasia and Gouveio


Define "ruby" Port.

Light style of Port, with a dark ruby red color and youthful aromas. Rubies are aged in large oak casks for a minimum of two to three years.


Define "reserve" Port.

A blend of premium ruby Ports bottled after four to six years aging in oak vats and are more like tawny Ports.


Define "Aged Tawny" Port.

A Port with enough additional aging that its color has taken on brownish tones and more mature oxidized flavors. Some are aged in wooden casks for decades.


What is a "pipe" in reference to Port production?

A pipe refers to the wooden casks that an aged tawny Port is aged in.


Define "vintage" Port.

A port from a single year's harvest, bottled young and then cellared for many more years before release. Producers individually "declare a vintage" in excellent years, typically 3 out of 10.


Define "cadastro".

A unique and complex vineyard ranking system in the Port region. It assesses 12 factors such as altitude, yield, and locality. Each vineyard is classified A to F (high to low).


Define "beneficio".

The volume of Port that a vineyard is allowed to produced, which artifically raises prices. The beneficio is based on the ranking given by the cadastro.


Define "late bottled vintage" Port.

A wine from a single vintage, matured like a tawny in large oak vats for four to six years and then bottled for immediate release.


Define "white" Port.

A commercial style of Port made from white grapes.


What is the only DOC covering Port wines from the Douro Valley?



What are estates called in the upper Douro Valley?



What does "maderization" refer to?

The "cooking" process of the wine. A process discovered when ships took local wines from Portugal to the Far East or the Americas. The time the wine spent among the hot cargo did something that improved its character, resulting in amber-colored wine with nutty, caramelized flavors.


What grape varieties are considered the "noble" grapes of Maderia?

Sercial, Verdelho (gouveio), Boal, and Malvasia.


What is the most widely planted grape on the island of Madeira?

Tinta Negra Mole


What grapes are used to make dry styles of Madeira?

Sercial, Verdelho, or Tinta Negra Mole (fortified after fermentation like a Sherry)


What grapes are used to make sweet styles of Madeira?

Boal, Malvasia, or Tinta Negra Mole (have their fermentation arrested like a Port)


What are the two methods used to maderize a Madeira wine?

Canteiro method (placing wine in casks in the rafters or canteiros of an uncooled warehouse where it will be subjected to high temperatures under the subtropical sun. several years or ages but produces complex flavors and considered the highest quality)
Estufa method (leaving the wine in a concrete vat...an estufa or "oven"...and circulating hot water through a submerged coil. Faster method made for commercial wines.


Classic Maderia takes the names of the noble grapes used for the style. What are these grapes, from driest to sweetest?

Sercial: Dry and highly acidic.
Verdelho: Off-dry
Boal: Raisiny and sweet
Malmsey: (British corruption of Malvasia) Very sweet but balanced by acidity


Are Maderia wines still labled based on grape names?

Not since joining the EU. They are required to contain at least 85% of the variety in order to be termed a "Sercial" etc.


What is the coolest/wettest part of Portugal? What types of wine does it produce?

Minho. It produces much more white than red.


Which DOC produces almost all of the quality wine in Minho?

Vinho Verde DOC - literally meaning "green wine" to imply it's youth.


What is the officially recommended Vinho Verde white and red grape varieties?

White = Alvarinho
Red = Amaral


What red and white grapes are most commonly used for Vinho Verde wines?

White = Loureiro
Red = Vinhao


Where does most quality wine from the Douro Valley come from?

Where does most quality wine from the Douro Valley come from?


Wines made in the Douro region from nontraditional varieties (such as Cab Sav) do not qualify for the DOC and use what?

VR Durinese


Which VR in Portugal is known for making almost twice as much vinho de mesa as country wine?

Beiras VR


What are the two significant DOCs in the Beiras VR region?

Bairrado DOC with a cool Mediterranean climate and the Dao DOC which is farther inland, surrounded by mountains, and has a more continental climate. They both produce white, red, rose, and sparkling wines. Reds make up the majority of the output in both cases.


Which VR and DOC in southeastern Portugal have a wine production that is increasing faster than any other region in the country?

DOC Alentejo for quality wine and VR Alentejano for country wine.


What are the leading grapes in the Alentejo region?

Aragonez (Tempranillo) and Tricadeira (Tinta Amarela)


What wine classification of Portugals is equivalent to the French's "vin de pays"?

VR wines


Which regions in Portugal make up the bulk of CTR production and area under vine?

Lisboa, Ribatejano (and Tejo, the identically bordered DOC), and Tras-os-Montes


From north to south, what are the major wine regions of Portugal?

Transmontano VR (Tras-os-Montes DOC), Minho VR (Vinho Verde DOC), Duriense VR (Porto DOC and Douro DOC), Beiras VR (Bairrada DOC and Dao DOC), Lisboa VR, Tejo VR (Ribatejo DOC), Peninsula de Setubal (Setubal DOC), Alentejano VR (Alentejo DOC), and Algarve VR


What are the four levels of Portugese wine classification? From lowest to highest?

Vinho de mesa (1/4 of production)
Vinho regional (VR) - country wine from one of the 11 VR regions
Indicacao de proveniencia regulamentada (IPR) - minor entry level quality wine that is likely to be phased out soon (like France's VDQS)
Denominacao de origem controlada (DOC) - 27 DOCs at present, including Port and Madeira


Is Portugal better knwon for international or indigenous grape varieties?



What are three internationally known wines from Portugal?

Vinho Verdo, Port, Madeira


Is Port fortified before or after fermentation stops? Name a style of Madeira that is fortified at the same stage?

Before, Malmsy


What are the two most northern VR regions in Portual?

Transmontano VR (Trans-os-Montes DOC) and Minho VR (Vinho Verde DOC)


What is Transmontano VR known for?

Transmontano VR contains the Tras-os-Montes DOC which represents the bulk of VR production and area under vine.


What is Minho VR known for?

Minho VR is the coolest and wettest part of the country, so it is not surprising that it produces more white than red. It includes Vinho Verde DOC which literally means "green wine" but can be red, white, or pink. The "green" implies youth.


What grapes are important to the Vinho Verde DOC?

Loureiro is the grape variety most commonly used for white Vinho Verde but Alvarinho (the same variety of Albarino of Rias Baixas) is considered the standout grape of most authorized varieties. Red Vinho Verde is made mostly from Vinhao.


What is the alcohol content of Vinho Verde?

Usually quite low. The minimum for white Vinho Verde is 8.5%.


What appelation is Portugal's largest in area and second largest in quantity after Port?

Vinho Verde DOC