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Flashcards in Alexander II Deck (17):
1

Give details on educational reforms

1863
-Promotion of private schools
-Setting up of inspection system
-More places were available
-No. of pupils attending secondary schools doubled from 1855 to 1865
-Universities given more autonomy
-Overhaul of the curriculum
-Schools run by Zemstva

2

When was he in power?

1855-1881

3

When was the Crimean war?

1853-1856

4

What was he nicknamed as?

'Tsar Liberator'

5

When did he emancipate the serfs?

1861

6

List some of his characteristics

-Knew languages, studied a modern curriculum
-Well travelled-toured Siberia and met political exiles
-Convinced a liberal rule was necessary

7

Why did he emancipate the serfs?

-Increase productivity
-Reduce peasant revolts
-'Better to abolish serfdom from above'

8

What were the key terms of serf emancipation?

-Serf to inherit land they worked
-Serfs would pay 'redemption dues' over a period of 49 years to buy land
-Free to marry without interference
-Could use the law courts
-Domestic serfs didn't receive land under terms
-Landowners given compensation for lost land.

9

What happened in 1866?

First attempt to assassinate Tsar

10

When was the 'Trial of 50' and what did it show?

1877
-A trial of his political opponents
-That he was willing to carry on tradition of autocracy with a firm hand

11

When was he assassinated?

1881

12

When was the Zemstva introduced and what did it do?

1864
-Regional councils.
-Set up to express the view of rural people at local level.
-Members elected by property qualification.

13

How was the justice system reformed?

-Jury system introduced
-Hierarchy of courts to deal with different cases more appropriately

14

What changes did he make in terms of censorship?

1865
-New guidelines issued for publishers/ writers
-Greater freedom for individual expression

15

What were the details of military reforms?

-1862-1874
-Better training of officers
-More humane treatment of troops
-Reduced period of service (25 to 15 years)
-Army became more professional

16

Give details on his attempts to modernise Russia

-1862-1881
-Mikhail Reutern appointed Minister of Finance to attract foreign investment/technical expertise
-From 1862 to 1878 there was a sevenfold increase in amount of railway track
-Iron, coal, textiles expanded rapidly

17

What was the reaction to emancipation?

-Peasants resented paying for land they thought was rightfully theirs
-Peasants complained about restrictions of the mir (commune)
-Nobles complained redemption payments weren't enough to compensate them
-Land settlement was very unsatisfactory: poor quality, small areas.