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Flashcards in Khrushchev Deck (22):

When was he in power?



What was the 'Virgin Land Scheme'?

-Hoped to transform Ukrainian Steppe/ Kazakhstan/Siberia into corn/cereal growing regions


In what ways was the Virgin Land Scheme successful?

-Opened 41 million hectares for production
-Between 1950 and 1960 annual production in agriculture increased by 43 million tones (29 coming from virgin lands).


Why did the Virgin Land Scheme fail?

-Poor rainfall, soil erosion
-Most mechanised equipment sent to virgin lands> delaying improvements in European Russia.


What effect did his decision to abolish the Motor Tractor stations (MTSs) have?

-They had been important centres for political control over collective farms
-They were yet another layer of bureaucracy obstructing efficient farming
-The speed at which this change was introduced (1 year) badly affected agriculture- many farms didn't possess expertise to maintain machinery.


What were the 2 major changes he planned for the Soviet system of government?

-Democratisation and decentralisation


Give details on democratisation

-From 1954 to 1964 the Party membership increased from 6.9 million to 11 million
-Most new members were workers/peasants
-To increase democracy he revived 'comrades courts' led by ordinary party members, which dealt with miner offenses.


Give details on decentralisation

-Transferred power to govs of 15 USSR republics
-'Sovnarkhozy' created- 105 regional councils given authority over economic development.


How did his policies undermine Stalinism/improves standards of living for the people?

-Priveleged position of Communist Party members under Stalin was widely resented> he introduced major changes to labour policy
-Narrowed the differences in pay between rich and poor
-Decriminalised absenteeism from work.


What did he do in terms of educational reforms?

-In 1958 abolished uni tuition fees allowing workers of children higher education.
-Promoted free education based on polytechnic> moderniser.


Discuss his housing policies

-From 1955 to 1964 housing construction programme doubled amount of homes in USSR
-Most of the new houses, however, were in poorly made high rise blocks of flats in suburbs.


How did he reorganise the policing system?

-MVD to deal with normal criminal cases
-KGB for intelligence work
-Political prisoners released
-Gulags started to disappear.


What did Khrushchev do at the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956?

-Secret speech- verbal attack on Stalinism
-Start of destalinisation
-Upset older party members


What were Russia's achievements in space in:
a) October 1957
b) 1961

a) USSR launched first satellite, Sputnik and first live animal in space
b) launch of the first man in space


When did the USSR test its first atom bomb?



When was the Cuban Missile Crisis?



What happened in the Cuban Missile Crisis?

-USA had missiles aimed on southern border of USSR from Northern Turkey
-USSR placed missiles in Cuba facing America
-USSR agreed to US demand for their removal on the basis that they remove theirs and never invade Cuba
-Khrushchev removed military threat.


Why did Khrushchev fall from power in terms of:
c) behaviour towards party

-Decentralisation loosened control of central government>less power over republics of USSR
-Reform of party members who saw their power reduced


What were Khrushchev's motives when he came to power?

-His background (was peasant)
-Genuine altruism
-Personal glory
-Overtake the west
-Had to be different to Stalin
-Redefine what had became know as communism.


Why did Khrushchev fall from power in terms of:
a) Personal style
b) Economic failings

a) Impulsive behaviour (shoe incident)
-Increasingly dictatorial manner alienated other senior party members
-Nepotism-gave job to own family.


What was MOLINK?

-Direct telephone between Kremlin & Whitehouse aimed to prevent future crisis between the powers.


What happened to the USSR's relationship with Cuba?

-Mao Zedong didn't accept Khrushchev's analysis of Stalin's rule
-Changed from communist allies to rivals.