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Flashcards in Nicholas II Deck (17):

When was he in power?



When was the Russo-Japanese war?

1904-1905, Tsar blamed for defeat


Summarise his reign

Never seemed to deal effectively with economic/political/social issues


List some of his characteristics

-Less intellectually able
-No reforming impulses
-Weak personality
-Married Alix of Hesse (a German) for love
-Became Tsar at 29
-Educated by Popodonostev


Summarise his reign in 4 points

1). Committed Russia to WWII (made tactical mistake by taking personal control of army in 1915
2). Tsarina (and Rasputin) left in charge
3). Forced to abdicate in 1917-replaced by provisional gov.
4). Bolsheviks murdered him and his family


How did Witte increase foreign investment?

-In 1897 the rouble was placed on the 'Gold standard' (the fixing of a country's currency to a specific quantity of gold).


When was Witte's 'Great Spurt'?



List some achievements of the Great Spurt

-Industrial production increased 7.5% p.a
-Coal production doubled
-Railway track increased: 1891=29,183km- 1901=52,612km
-Income from industry increased 1893=42 million roubles. 1897=161 million roubles
-Between 1893 7 1898 foreign capital investment increased by 120%
-Iron & Steel production increased sevenfold


What problems did he face when he came to power?

-Poor living/working conditions
-International conflict
--Organised industrial opposition
-SR Terrorism
-SDs eventually become Bolsheviks/Mensheviks


What were his policies in:
a) 1896
b) 1903

a) A law standardised working day to 11 hours
b) A workers' insurance system introduced to protect workers against loss of employment due to injury


What was Bloody Sunday?

-Jan 1905, 200 demonstrations marching on winter palace shot dead by soldiers and a further 800 injured


What was the 1905 Revolution?

-A series of protests and strikes that led to the publication of October Manifesto and creation of Duma.


What was the October Manifesto?

-Blueprint for a new form of elective government revolving around the Duma


Summarise the four Dumas

1st Duma, April-July 1906:
Disbanded after disagreements about land reform
2nd Duma, Feb-June 1907:
Disbanded- disagreement about Land reform & management of Russian army
3rd Duma, Nov 1907- June 1912:
Majority were loyal to crown. Major reforms that strengthened army/navy improvements to judicial system, introduction of State- sum insurance schemes
4th Duma, Nov 1912- Feb 1917:
Far right politicians, pressured Tsar to abdicate.


What were the fundamental laws?

1906- Regulations that reinforced the position of the Tsar and watered down the impact of the 1905 reforms.
-Made it clear that no legislation could be passed by the Duma without Tsars consent


What did Minister of the Interior Pyotr Stolypin launch between 1906 & 1914?

-'Wager on the strong' to modernise agriculture and increase food production.
-Ex serfs could buy themselves out of the peasant commune & consolidate strips of land into profit- making farms
-Helped by Peasant Land bank. 1/8 of households advantage.


Describe the governments' structure after the October Manifesto

1. The Tsar continued to rule as autocrat
2. Council of Ministers chaired by a PM elected by Tsar
3. The State Council (nominated/elected upper chamber) nominated by Tsar/elected as reps of towns/church/ zemstva etc.
4. The Duma (elected lower chamber) election process deliberately complex, discriminated against workers/peasants. Tsar could disband it.
5. The Senate