Flashcards in Nicholas II Deck (17):
When was he in power?
When was the Russo-Japanese war?
1904-1905, Tsar blamed for defeat
Summarise his reign
Never seemed to deal effectively with economic/political/social issues
List some of his characteristics
-Less intellectually able
-No reforming impulses
-Married Alix of Hesse (a German) for love
-Became Tsar at 29
-Educated by Popodonostev
Summarise his reign in 4 points
1). Committed Russia to WWII (made tactical mistake by taking personal control of army in 1915
2). Tsarina (and Rasputin) left in charge
3). Forced to abdicate in 1917-replaced by provisional gov.
4). Bolsheviks murdered him and his family
How did Witte increase foreign investment?
-In 1897 the rouble was placed on the 'Gold standard' (the fixing of a country's currency to a specific quantity of gold).
When was Witte's 'Great Spurt'?
List some achievements of the Great Spurt
-Industrial production increased 7.5% p.a
-Coal production doubled
-Railway track increased: 1891=29,183km- 1901=52,612km
-Income from industry increased 1893=42 million roubles. 1897=161 million roubles
-Between 1893 7 1898 foreign capital investment increased by 120%
-Iron & Steel production increased sevenfold
What problems did he face when he came to power?
-Poor living/working conditions
--Organised industrial opposition
-SDs eventually become Bolsheviks/Mensheviks
What were his policies in:
a) A law standardised working day to 11 hours
b) A workers' insurance system introduced to protect workers against loss of employment due to injury
What was Bloody Sunday?
-Jan 1905, 200 demonstrations marching on winter palace shot dead by soldiers and a further 800 injured
What was the 1905 Revolution?
-A series of protests and strikes that led to the publication of October Manifesto and creation of Duma.
What was the October Manifesto?
-Blueprint for a new form of elective government revolving around the Duma
Summarise the four Dumas
1st Duma, April-July 1906:
Disbanded after disagreements about land reform
2nd Duma, Feb-June 1907:
Disbanded- disagreement about Land reform & management of Russian army
3rd Duma, Nov 1907- June 1912:
Majority were loyal to crown. Major reforms that strengthened army/navy improvements to judicial system, introduction of State- sum insurance schemes
4th Duma, Nov 1912- Feb 1917:
Far right politicians, pressured Tsar to abdicate.
What were the fundamental laws?
1906- Regulations that reinforced the position of the Tsar and watered down the impact of the 1905 reforms.
-Made it clear that no legislation could be passed by the Duma without Tsars consent
What did Minister of the Interior Pyotr Stolypin launch between 1906 & 1914?
-'Wager on the strong' to modernise agriculture and increase food production.
-Ex serfs could buy themselves out of the peasant commune & consolidate strips of land into profit- making farms
-Helped by Peasant Land bank. 1/8 of households advantage.